What is meant by SOHO Wireless LAN?
What is a wireless LAN?
2 2002 What is a wireless LAN? Contents 1. Preface What is a WLAN? WLAN advantages The standard WLAN network types Ranges Channel allocation Roaming Data security Antenna technology 23 WAVEline 29 Recommended literature 46 WLAN glossary 48 Publisher: Compu-Shack Production GmbH Ringstr Neuwied Germany Author: Jörg Rech Note: In the event that information in this brochure is incorrect or incorrect Compu-Shack Production GmbH is not liable.
3 What is a wireless LAN? 1. Foreword Dear Readers, This brochure accompanying the product will help you to quickly understand the advantages of wireless networks, to use their advantages and to put them into practice. The networking of PCs or notebooks has become an essential part of the modern world of communication. The latest trend is wireless networks that enable data to be exchanged via radio, so that you can do without a connection via network cables. This gives the user significantly greater flexibility and mobility when exchanging data. Compu-Shack Production GmbH has faced the challenges of modern wireless network technologies and offers corresponding products under the name WAVEline. WAVEline offers a wide and powerful range of products for setting up a wireless network, from network adapters and access points to antenna solutions for indoor and outdoor use. Compu-Shack Production provides you with a well-rounded concept that is marketed as GOLDline products at acceptable prices. 03 We hope you enjoy reading and planning your wireless networks.
4 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 2. What is a WLAN? Wireless networks are generally referred to as WLANs (Wireless Local Area Network), which is a generic term for numerous solutions. In the 1990s, various radio solutions were brought onto the market that were either manufacturer-specific or based on uniform standards. Among the technological competitors, the WLAN solution ultimately prevailed, which was specified as a standard by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) and is often referred to as Wireless Ethernet. 3. WLAN advantages 04 The main advantage of WLANs is the mobility and flexibility that a user receives through the use of radio networks. Completely detached from network cables, the user can move within a certain area and exchange data. This advantage becomes particularly clear when data is exchanged between notebooks or PDAs, which only receive their actual mobility through WLAN technology and are no longer tied to a fixed network connection.
5 What is a wireless LAN? 3. WLAN advantages As far as the actual application or its implementation is concerned, there are a large number of areas of application for WLAN technology. Here are a few examples: Temporary networking during trade fairs, workshops or training events. Networks can be set up quickly and easily, as the annoying and time-consuming laying of cables is no longer necessary. The wired network infrastructure has so far represented a major cost factor. The use of WLANs eliminates the cabling infrastructure to the workstations, which can save enormous costs. The network can easily be expanded without installing additional network sockets. If employees move, a new installation of a network socket is not necessary. The employee can move freely in the covered area of the WLAN and look for a job. Universities and schools, professors or teachers can move freely around the site and compare their data. The same applies to students or schoolchildren who, for example, are in the cafeteria and can access information on the Internet. Historic or listed buildings can be networked via WLAN so that these buildings can be used commercially without any problems. 05 Location-independent, mobile Internet access can be set up using WLAN solutions. Surfing from the sofa or in the garden is thus possible without any problems. Buildings can be networked over large distances via radio links (directional radio link), which eliminates the high costs of renting a dedicated line.
6 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 4. The standard The WLAN solutions that were specified according to the IEEE are laid down in the standard that was published in 1997 and defines a data rate of 1 and 2 Mbit / s. The FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) and DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) technology, which work in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, were specified as the transmission method. Today the DSSS technology is mainly used. DSSS is a spread spectrum method in which the narrowband user data is converted into a broadband signal using a spreading code and optimized for data transmission bb represents an extension of the basic standard that was published in 1999 and provides additional data rates of 5.5 and 11 Mbit / s can be achieved. However, only DSSS technology is used as the transmission method. The WLAN components that are most widespread today work according to b and thus support a data rate of 11 Mbit / s. 06
7 What is a wireless LAN? 4. The standard a / h A is also an extension of the basic standard, which took place in 1999 and with which a data rate of 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 54 Mbit / s can be achieved. However, this does not work in the 2.4 but in the 5 GHz band. The OFDM method (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is used as the transmission method. In this transmission method, the frequency band is divided into several sub-bands. The data is not transmitted sequentially but in parallel on the sub-bands, which means that transmission rates of up to 54 Mbit / s can be achieved. So far, however, the use of a-compliant WLAN components has not yet been approved in Europe. Certain adjustments were necessary so that these components could be operated without affecting other systems that also work in the 5 GHz band. The required adjustments are implemented by the h extension. It is currently to be expected that this process will be completed in the 4th quarter of 2002 and that nothing will stand in the way of the spread of WLAN components after a / h within Europe. 07
8 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 4. The g standard. G represents an additional extension. This is a solution based on the OFDM method, which also achieves a data rate of 6 to 54 Mbit / s in the 2.4 GHz band can. The advantage of this solution is that you work with a lower transmission frequency, which is subject to less attenuation. As a result, higher ranges are achieved compared to the a / h solutions with lower transmission power. This expansion is expected to be completed in the first half of 2003. Operating costs 08 WLANs work in the license and approval-free frequency bands, which are referred to as ISM (Industrial Science Medical) bands. Accordingly, there are no licensed operating costs and no approval is required to set up a WLAN. All you have to do is send a message to Section 122 of the BAPT in accordance with ruling 154/1999 if you cross other properties with a WLAN connection.
9 What is a wireless LAN? 4. The standard of security When using radio technology, medical security is repeatedly discussed and questioned. For WLANs in the 2.4 GHz band, for example, the transmission power is limited to 100 mw (20 dbm). In comparison, a mobile phone uses a transmission power that is 20 times higher. The operation of a WLAN is therefore to be regarded as uncritical; risks for people are not to be expected from today's perspective. This statement is reinforced by the fact that there are already a large number of WLAN installations in hospitals, but the use of cell phones is prohibited. Bluetooth delimitation All too often, Bluetooth and WLAN solutions are lumped together. This is probably due to the fact that both solutions work in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and Bluetooth uses FHSS technology as the transmission method, like the first WLAN solutions. However, it must be noted that Bluetooth is not a wireless network solution, but rather a radio solution as a short cable or infrared replacement, with which data can be transmitted over short distances of 10 m at a low data rate of 1 Mbit / s. Bluetooth is therefore reserved for the PAN area (Personal Area Network), which is primarily about data exchange between PCs or notebooks and PDAs or other peripherals. 09
10 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 5. WLAN forms There are various forms of implementation for setting up a WLAN. A few WLAN adapters are often sufficient for wireless data exchange between PCs or notebooks. Install the adapter, install the driver, perform the configuration and you're done. If these systems are within a certain range and their WLAN adapters are working on the same channel, wireless data exchange can already take place. WLAN network adapter 10 If you want to make PCs, notebooks or PDAs WLAN-capable, there are various possibilities in which various adapter cards can be used for the purpose of expansion. The most widespread version is a PCMCIA adapter that can be used to expand notebooks and PCs. If the PC does not have a PCMCIA interface, it can be expanded using a suitable PCI adapter card. In addition to PCMCIA adapters, there are USB adapters that can also be used to expand notebooks and PCs. Compact Flash adapters can be used for PDAs, which can also be used to make PDAs with CF interfaces suitable for WLAN.
11 What is a wireless LAN? 5. WLAN network types Ad-hoc network The radio cell, which is formed by two or more stations, is known in technical jargon as the Basic Service Set, or BSS for short. A component of the BSS are all stations that are within range of each other, work on the same channel and can therefore exchange data. If a BSS stands on its own, it is also known as an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). Since an IBSS is a spontaneous wireless network that can ultimately be implemented in practice at short notice and without planning, this type of network is also referred to as an ad hoc network. 11
12 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 5. WLAN network forms Infrastructure network A WLAN can theoretically be expanded infinitely in terms of area by creating several BSSs that are connected to one another. So-called access points are used as a link in the BSS, which can exchange data between the BSS via a distribution system (DS for short). Either wired (Ethernet) or wireless solutions (WLAN) can be used as the distribution system. In this way, the range of a WLAN can be increased or a connection to a conventional network can be established. If a WLAN is based on two or more BSSs that are connected to one another via a distribution system, one speaks of the so-called Extended Service Set, or ESS for short. Since the construction of an ESS usually requires a certain amount of planning and is based on a certain structure, this type of network is also referred to as an infrastructure network. 12th
13 What is a wireless LAN? 5. WLAN network forms Access Point An access point can generally increase the size of a WLAN, whereby this is not only related to the structure of an infrastructure network, but can also be the case with a single radio cell (BSS). Because if you position an access point in the center of a radio cell and communication does not take place directly between the stations, but via the access point, the radius of the radio cell supplied roughly doubles. In addition, an access point can manage a radio cell in that the WLAN clients first have to log into the access point and authenticate before they are allowed to exchange data within the radio cell. 13th
14 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 5. WLAN network types building-to-building If you want to network buildings with each other via WLAN, a radio link can be set up. For this purpose, access points can be placed in each building that are switched in bridging mode and, if necessary, combined with special antennas. If larger distances are to be bridged, antennas with directional radio characteristics are used (see the section on antenna technology). 14th
15 What is a wireless LAN? 5. WLAN network types DSL router Many access points have a routing function and protocol support for NAT (Network Address Translation) and PPPoE (Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet). If these requirements are met, these access points can be connected directly to a DSL modem and provide WLAN users with a connection to the Internet. 15th
16 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 5. WLAN network types WLAN print server If you want to connect printers wirelessly within a WLAN, you can use a wireless print server. These are available for parallel port and USB printers, and a large number of printer models can be connected. The prerequisite for this is that it is not a GDI printer (Graphic Device Interface), but a printer that can be addressed with printer languages such as PostScript etc. 16
17 What is a wireless LAN? 6. Ranges The achievable range depends on the environment and the data rate. When it comes to the environment, the decisive factor is which obstacles are between the stations and how much their damping is. The environments are classified into an open and a closed environment. Environments in which there are no obstacles between the stations, such as outdoor areas or larger halls, are classified as open environments. If, on the other hand, there are obstacles with medium and high attenuation between the stations, the environment is considered to be closed. The high data rates are achieved with higher-quality modulation methods, which require better reception quality for interference-free data exchange. Accordingly, the higher the data rate, the lower the achievable distance. In order to achieve an optimum between the data rate and the achievable distance, WLAN components have an automatic setting of the data rate which, depending on the distance, ensures error-free data transmission ba / h 1 Mbit / s 50 m 9 Mbit / s 70 m 2 Mbit / s 40 m 12 Mbit / s 53 m 5.5 Mbit / s 35 m 18 Mbit / s 40 m 11 Mbit / s 30 m 24 Mbit / s 27 m 36 Mbit / s 25 m 48 Mbit / s 11 m 54 Mbit / s 7 m 17 Achievable ranges in a closed environment depending on the data rate.
18 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 7. Channel allocation If the most widespread DSSS solution in the 2.4 GHz band is used, the channel allocation must be taken into account if several independent WLAN devices are to be operated within one reception area. A channel requires a bandwidth of 22 MHz, with the European frequency division even requiring a safety margin of 30 MHz. The existing frequency range from 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz is divided into 13 channels so that the center frequencies are 5 MHz apart. Accordingly, the channel grouping must be taken into account, according to which up to three independent WLAN devices can be operated if channels 1, 7 and 13 are used. With all other channel groupings, two independent WLAN devices can be operated within one reception area. 18th
19 What is a wireless LAN? 7. Channel distribution Area-wide supply If you want to ensure area-wide supply within a building, you can achieve this through the targeted placement of access points. The access points should be positioned in such a way that their radio cells overlap to ensure uninterrupted coverage. When defining the channels used, the possible channel grouping should be taken into account. At which points within a building an access point must be placed can be determined via radio coverage. To do this, you position an access point roughly in the center of the building and go through all the prominent points with a client station. Certain software tools are used on this client, which are part of the scope of delivery and with which the send / receive quality between the client and the access point can be measured. 19th
20 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 8. Roaming Comprehensive coverage of a building is usually provided by placing several access points that form different radio cells between which data can be exchanged via the access point. In this case, the WLAN clients always exchange data with the access point closest to the station, which offers the best send / receive quality. Thanks to a roaming function, it is even possible to wander between the radio cells without losing this connection to the WLAN. To do this, the stations automatically establish a connection with the next access point as soon as you change their position and are within a better range of another access point.In this case, the data is automatically rerouted so that data exchange with the WLAN client is guaranteed, even if the client has changed radio cells. 20th
21 What is a wireless LAN? 9. Data security When data is transmitted via radio, there are no limits when viewed directly. According to this, anyone who is within the range of the WLAN could theoretically eavesdrop on data. To prevent this, Wired Equivalent Privacy, or WEP for short, was introduced in the standard to achieve a level of security comparable to that in a wired LAN in WLAN. WEP can be used for the encryption of the transmitted data and for the authentication. There are two methods, WEP 40, with a key length of 40 bits, and WEP 128, with a key length of 104 bits. Both key lengths are supplemented by a 24-bit long initialization vector. When using WEP, only those stations that have the same WEP key can exchange data with one another. The WEP key is entered in the form of a 5 character long (WEP40) or 13 character long (WEP128) password on all stations. 21
22 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 9. Data security Access restriction In addition to the access restriction via WEP, an additional access restriction was implemented in the standard, which depends on the hardware address (MAC address) of the WLAN adapter. For this purpose, a so-called Access Control List (ACL) is maintained on the access points, in which all addresses of the WLAN adapters that are allowed to access the WLAN can be entered. This provides additional protection and prevents unauthorized persons from accessing the WLAN and importing data into the network or manipulating it in the network. In this way, Internet access is also protected from unauthorized access or shared use if it ends in a WLAN via an access point. 22nd
23 What is a wireless LAN? 10. Antenna technology The range or area-wide coverage of a WLAN can also be optimized by using special antennas. Most WLAN components have corresponding sockets to which special antennas with specific directional characteristics can be connected. Antenna characteristics The characteristics of an antenna are essentially described by the opening angle, horizontal and vertical radiation diagrams and the antenna gain. Depending on the design of the antenna, it emits its energy in a certain direction or angular segment (preferred direction) or receives the energy. How the radiation and reception characteristics look in detail can be seen from a horizontal and vertical radiation diagram. 23
24 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 10. Antenna technology The opening angle results from the point at which the power has dropped to half (- 3dB) compared to the maximum. This is also referred to as the half-width. Antenna gain With an antenna, the opening angle is directly related to the antenna gain. The smaller the opening angle, the greater the directional radio effect and the antenna gain. The antenna gain does not describe any energy gain, but indicates how much power you would have to add to an isotropic spherical emitter so that it would emit the same power in the preferred direction as the antenna under consideration. An isotropic spherical radiator is a theoretical antenna that radiates its power evenly (isotropically) in all directions. In order to show that the isotropic spherical radiator is used as a comparison when determining the antenna gain, the gain is given in dbi (db isotropic). 24
25 What is a wireless LAN? 10. Antennentechnik Patch Antennas If you want to illuminate a room or an area evenly, it may be useful to use special antennas instead of the standard antennas, which radiate evenly in all directions. For this there are so-called patch antennas, which have an opening angle of 70 horizontally and 65 vertically with an antenna gain of 8.5 dbi. With the help of these antennas, for example, a room can be illuminated with a wide lobe if the antenna is mounted in the corner or on a certain wall of the room. 25th
26 2002 What is a wireless LAN? 10. Antenna technology Directional radio links If you want to bridge large distances, the construction of a radio link is recommended. Yagi antennas are used here, which have a large directional characteristic with an opening angle of about 30 and an antenna gain of 13.5 to 14 dbi. In general, you have to take into account that the antenna gain within Europe is limited to 14 dbi. There must be a direct line of sight between the radio link, and a certain radius, the so-called Fresnel zone, must also be free of obstacles so that the maximum distance can be achieved. This does justice to the fact that the radio waves do not propagate in a straight line, but experience a certain amount of refraction, which depends on the air temperature, humidity and pressure. How large the radius of the Fresnel zone is can generally be found in the documentation for the antenna. 26th
27 What is a wireless LAN? 10. Antenna technology power budget Most 2.4 GHz WLAN adapters work with a transmission power of 14 to 16 dbm, i.e. they are 4 to 6 db below the limit of 20 dbm. This means that small wire antennas with an antenna gain of up to 4 dbi can be connected without any problems. However, if you want to connect an antenna with a higher gain, as is the case with a radio link, you have to take the power budget into account. The rule here is that you have to use damping to ensure that you stay below the limit value. The antenna cable is generally used as the attenuating element, in which a minimum length must not be exceeded and a certain diameter must not be exceeded. If you use a WLAN adapter with a transmission power of 14 dbm, the antenna cables and, if applicable, the lightning protection device must have a total attenuation of 8 db so that an antenna with 14 dbi can be connected. So that the user does not have to calculate the power budget, the antenna data sheets usually provide precise information on the antenna cables required, their minimum length and minimum diameter. 27
29 WAVEline WAVEline and thus wireless networking is becoming more and more of an issue. On the one hand, this is due to the standardization of the technology, and on the other hand, the costs per participant are now at an acceptable price structure. Compu-Shack Production presents a high-performance product range that is designed for both indoor and outdoor use. 29
30 2002 WAVEline Access Point The access point is the central component in the wireless network. Through the targeted placement of access points, area-wide coverage within buildings for wireless stations can be realized. Compu-Shack Production offers you two different access points that are specially tailored to your area of application. WAVEline Access Point The WAVEline Access Point is equipped with a bridging or routing function with which a connection between the wireless LAN and the wired 10 / 100Base-TX Ethernet can be created in order to set up an infrastructure network. In addition, the WAVEline Access Point has an internal DSL router and NAT (Network Address Translation), it supports PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet), and is thus able to provide broadband Internet access via DSL to its wireless clients. 30 CS
31 WAVEline Access Point (BtB) WAVEline Access Point (BtB) The WAVEline Access Point "Building to Building", on the other hand, was developed for cross-building data communication. It has two antennas that provide greater ranges and an internal repeater function that allows up to 6 access points to be connected to one another. Distances of up to 1000 m can be bridged in this way and allow wireless networks to be set up over large distances. CS Plug & Play installation Developed according to IEEE and IEEE802.11b; 1-11MBit / s Internal DSL router (only CS) Supports DHCP (only CS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Supports NAT (only CS) Works according to ETSI specification in the 2.4 GHz ISM band with 13 channels Windows based configuration software as well as diagnosis, statistics and traffic monitor, Telnet, web management User authentication as security control Access control via MAC address query (ACL) Roaming function Supports WEP40 and WEP128 data encryption 1 Ethernet connection 10/100 auto-negotiation 31
32 2002 WAVEline Micro Access Point The access point, which weighs only 80 grams, was specially developed for mobile use. Thanks to its compact dimensions, the WAVEline Micro Access Point can be carried comfortably and can be positioned flexibly thanks to the fold-out stand. The sophisticated web interface offers convenient configuration of the device using standard browser software b Compatible access point with 11MBit / s max.transmission rate 64 / 128Bit WEP data encryption and ACL (access control via MAC addresses) Firmware upgradeable The extensive configuration and diagnostic software guarantees optimal operation of the Access Point 32 CS
33 WAVEline PCMCIA Adpter The WAVEline PCMCIA adapter enables notebooks to be integrated into wireless LAN environments in the simplest possible way. The PCMCIA adapter has been developed according to the IEEE and IEEE802.11b standards and corresponds to the PCMCIA specification Type II. A point-to-point connection, e.g. between a notebook and a fixed PC is possible without an access point. Plug & Play installation Developed according to IEEE and IEEE802.11b Corresponds to PCMCIA, Type II; 16 Bit Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Works according to the ETSI specification in the 2.4 GHz ISM band with 13 channels. Point-to-point connection without access point possible. Data rate: 1, 2, 5.5, or 11 Mbit / s. The data rate is selected automatically. The 64/128-bit data encryption via WEP40 / 128 prevents unauthorized access to transmitted data. 800mW power consumption For Windows 95/98/2000 / ME / XP 33 CS
34 2002 WAVEline PCI adapter The WAVEline PCI adapter enables the integration of PCs with a PCI-compatible bus in the simplest possible way. The wireless interface has been developed according to the IEEE and IEEE b standards and corresponds to the PCI 2.1 specification. The WAVEline PCI adapter has an external antenna to ensure the best transmission / reception quality, regardless of the position of the adapter. 34 Simple plug-and-play installation 32-bit PCI 2.1 compliant IEEE and b compatible with 11MBit / s max.transmission rate 64 / 128Bit WEP data encryption Approx. 15 dbm output power SMA reverse antenna socket Supports Windows 9x / ME / 2000 and XP CS
35 WAVEline Mini-USB Adapter A flexible and easy-to-install plug-and-play wireless solution for your notebook. The compact design and low power consumption make it the ideal companion for the mobile user. Thanks to the latest semiconductor technology, the WAVEline Mini-USB adapter with 15 dbm offers you a powerful 11MBit connection to all IEEE b compatible networks. Simple plug-and-play installation IEEE b compatible with 11MBit / s max.transmission rate 64 / 128Bit WEP data encryption Approx. 30 mw output power 1dBi antenna with diversity Supports Windows 9x / ME / 2000 and XP Weight approx. 50 grams 35 CS
36 2002 WAVEline Compact Flash Adapter Do not use conventional network cabling and use the mobility of a PDA or notebook with the latest generation of b wireless adapters. The card, which weighs only approx. 10 grams, is equipped with a highly integrated wireless interface and a long range and requires very little power. The WAVEline Compact Flash Adapter supports all leading PDA and handheld PC models, such as: B. Compaq IPAQ, HP Jornada and Casio s Cassiopeia b Compatible access point with 11MBit / s max. Transfer rate 64 / 128Bit WEP data encryption Low power consumption and energy-saving mode Max. Range approx. 140 m (depending on the respective environment) Driver support: Windows CE 3.0 , Windows NT / 2000 / XP, Win 98 / ME CS
37 WAVEline print server USB print server The WAVEline print server offers you easy-to-implement mobile printing in a mixed SOHO environment. Place your printer completely free, within an existing wireless network. The wireless print server provides printer services to users on the wired side of the network as well as wireless stations who want to use printing resources flexibly over a wireless network. The WAVEline print servers are available either with a parallel interface or with a USB interface for easy plug & play installation. IEEE b wireless LAN interface WEP40 and WEP128 data encryption External antenna with 2dBi antenna gain 10 / 100MBit LAN connection (RJ-45) Protocol support TCP / IP, SMB and NetBEUI Supports all Windows systems, as well as MacOS remote management software for the configuration of Print server and printer Integrated web interface for easy configuration via the browser HP-JetAdmin and BiAdmin support SNMP support IPP (Internet Printing Protocol) support 37 CS CS print server 1 x parallel print server 1 x USB
38 2002 WAVEline Omni 2.2-80 The WAVEline Omni antenna 2.2-80 is the ideal addition to your laptop. If your laptop is at the limit of a radio cell where the data rate is automatically reduced to 1 Mbit / s, the WAVEline patch antenna promises a typical increase to 11 Mbit / s. The antenna characteristics improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by approx. 2 5 db, which increases the transmission / reception characteristics and the components can automatically increase their data rate in borderline situations. The float mount connector enables direct connection to the WAVEline PCMCIA adapter. Thanks to the Velcro fastener with adhesive holder, the antenna can be easily attached to the notebook and removed again after use. 38 Omni antenna for indoor applications 2.2 dbi antenna gain For 2.4 GHz frequency band Horizontal opening angle 360 Vertical opening angle 80 SNR improvement of 2-5 db 40 cm connection cable Practical Velcro fastener as adhesive float mount connector CS
39 WAVEline patch antenna 6-80 The WAVEline patch antenna 6-80 is an inexpensive directional antenna with an opening angle of 80 for indoor use to supplement access points for the purpose of increasing performance. This antenna has an antenna gain of 6 dbi, which results in a range increase of up to 100% in the preferred direction. The antenna is provided with a stand, which can also be used in an angled form for wall mounting. The WAVEline patch antenna 6-80 is available in two different versions, which vary in the different connector faces. The version with reverse SMA connector is designed for connection to the WAVEline access points and the version with float mount connector for connection to the WAVEline PCMCIA adapter or WAVEline print server or DSLline router with wireless option. Directional antenna for indoor applications 6 dbi antenna gain For 2.4 GHz frequency band Horizontal opening angle 80 Vertical opening angle 80 Range increase 100% 1.5 m connection cable Stand and wall bracket Reverse SMA or float mount connector 39 CS with Reverse SMA CS with float mount
40 2002 WAVEline Panel The WAVEline Panel is a directional radio antenna for the outdoor area, which is characterized by its excellent directional effect and with an opening angle of 30, offers an antenna gain of 14 dbi. Due to the excellent directional effect, neighboring antennas are less disturbed. In this way, several directional radio links can be set up at a short distance, in order to achieve bandwidth bundling, for example. The range gain is%, which means that at a mounting height of around 3 m (Fresnel zone 3-5 m) at a data rate of 11 Mbit / s, distances of up to 1 km can be achieved. 40 Directional radio antenna for outdoor applications 14 dbi antenna gain For 2.4 GHz frequency band Horizontal opening angle 30 Vertical opening angle 30 Range increase% 30 cm connection cable Wall mounting bracket N connector (female) CS
41 WAVEline Pico 8,5-70 The WAVEline Pico 8,5-70 is an antenna with directional radio characteristics that is designed for indoor and outdoor use. It has an antenna gain of 8.5 dbi with an opening angle of 70 horizontally and 65 vertically. Range increases of% are therefore typical values that can be achieved by using this antenna. The WAVEline Pico 8.5-70 is ideal for illuminating larger halls, smaller outdoor spaces or setting up hot spots. The antenna has a practical wall mounting kit that allows flexible and easy horizontal and vertical alignment of the antenna. Directional antenna for indoor and outdoor applications 8.5 dbi antenna gain For 2.4 GHz frequency band Horizontal opening angle 70 Vertical opening angle 65 Range increase% 40 cm connection cable Practical wall mounting kit SMA connector (female) 41 CS
42 2002 WAVEline DSLline Wireless Router With the DSLline Wireless Router from CompuShack Production, you can now use your DSL or cable modem Internet access conveniently with several computers and thus save considerable costs. On the wired side of the DSLline wireless router, Fast Ethernet segments can be easily connected using the 4 x 10 / 100MBit RJ-45 connections provided by the integrated switch and complex multi-segment networks can be set up using the integrated routing table.The DSLline Internet Router also enables you to set up a wireless network via the integrated access point and thus access the Internet or the connected printer from any point in your wireless network, mobile and flexible. 42 IEEE b (DSSS) compatible access point with WEP40 / 128 and user authentication and 11MBit / s max.transmission rate Integrated 4-port switch with 10 / 100MBit / s auto-negotiation Integrated print server with parallel interface WAN interface with which you can use your entire network Connect to the Internet via a DSL or cable modem (supports PPPoE and PPTP) Integrated DHCP server Extended routing functions Integrated NAT firewall and stateful inspection function to ward off hacker attacks. B. NetMeeting, CuSeeMe, ICQ etc. CS
43 WAVEline 43
44 The advantages All products have German / English documentation! We certify the products according to the CE standard! From the entry-level product to the high-end product, a completely expandable product range! Only in Germany over 270 specialist retail partners for further questions! We provide for you: Development of the hardware design Development of the driver environment Compliance with all German and European standards Optical quality control Burn in test Quality control after assembly HV tests Endurance tests in complete test environments Compatibility tests
45 Recommended literature WLAN glossary 45
46 2002 What is a wireless LAN? Recommended reading How PC networks work This work conveys complex technical issues in clear four-color illustrations. Informative and in-depth texts reveal the secrets that lie behind the many terms relating to computer networks. This book provides an introduction to the world of computer networks in the simplest possible way for the interested layperson without prior knowledge. 46 Frank J. Derfler Les Freed This is how PC networks work under Windows and Novell 216 pages, bound Compu-Shack PC-NETZWK
47 What is a wireless LAN? Recommended literature Ethernet This publication was produced with the kind support of Jörg Rech. Jörg Rech is an employee of Compu-Shack Production and a specialist author of numerous articles that have been published in well-known specialist journals on the subject of Ethernet networks. He has also written a specialist book that was published by Heise Verlag. On 642 pages, this extensive work conveys detailed and in-depth knowledge about the subject of Ethernet networks and is a must for every network professional. The book is available in bookshops or from dpunkt Verlag. Jörg Rech Ethernet technologies and protocols for computer networking 47 Verlag Heinz Heise 642 pages, bound 56 euros (D) / 57.6 euros (A) / 96 sfr ISBN
48 2002 What is a wireless LAN? WLAN glossary Standard Basic standard that was published by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) in 1997 and forms the basis for today's most widespread wireless network technology (WLAN) a extension of the basic standard that was adopted in 1999 and has a data rate of 6, 9 , 12, 18, 24, 36 and 54 Mbit / s in the 5 GHz band enables b Extension of the basic standard that was adopted in 1999 and enables a data rate of 5.5 and 11 Mbit / s in the 2.4 GHz band . The WLAN components most widely used today are and b compliant and thus support a data rate of 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mbit / sg Future expansion, which is expected to be adopted in the first half of 2003 and a data rate of 6, 9, 12 18, 24, 36 and 54 Mbit / s in the 2.4 GHz band enables h European adaptation of the a standard, with which a components can be operated within Europe. The adaptation refers to an automatic adaptation of the transmission power (Transmit Power Control, TPC for short) and the channel selection (Dynamic Channel / Frequency Selection, DCS / DFS for short).
49 What is a wireless LAN? WLAN glossary Standard for wireless personal area networks, or WPANs for short. This standard is dedicated to the radio solution with low transmission power for short distances of 10 m, with a close reference to Bluetooth. ACL stands for Access Control List. It is a list that can be created on the access points and that contains all the MAC addresses of the WLAN stations that are allowed to log on to the access point. In this way, the access authorization to a WLAN can be restricted via the ACL. Access point Special form of a WLAN station that can act as a link between a radio cell and a distribution system (DS for short). Either wired (Ethernet) or wireless solutions can be used as the distribution system. In this way, the range of a WLAN can be increased or a connection to a conventional network can be established. In addition, an access point can manage a radio cell in that the WLAN clients first have to log into the access point and authenticate before they are allowed to exchange data within the radio cell. Antenna gain See dbi 49 Bluetooth wireless technology for the short range (Personal Area Network, PAN for short), with which a data rate of 1 Mbit / s can be achieved over a distance of 10 m. Bluetooth is primarily used for data exchange between PDAs, cell phones, notebooks and PCs.
50 2002 What is a wireless LAN? WLAN glossary BSS Stands for Basic Service Set and describes the smallest structure of a WLAN that corresponds to a radio cell. CSMA / CA basic access procedure for WLANs based on the standard that stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance. Works in a similar way to the well-known access method CSMA / CD from Ethernet, but without collision detection. With CSMA / CA one tries to avoid collisions from the outset by the stations reserving the medium for their data transmission in advance. 50 dbi Unit of measurement for the antenna gain, which is expressed as the logarithmic ratio of decibels in relation to the isotropic radiator. An isotropic spherical radiator is a theoretical antenna that radiates its power evenly (isotropically) in all directions. As soon as an antenna preferably radiates the power in a certain direction (preferred direction), it is referred to as a directional antenna. An antenna gain is not a real gain in the form of a gain, but indicates how much power you would have to add to the spherical radiator (EIRP) so that it emits the same power in the preferred direction. dbm power level in decibels, based on 1 mw. The power of 100 mw, for example, corresponds to 20 dbm = 10 log (100 mw / 1 mw).
51 What is a wireless LAN? WLAN glossary DS Stands for Distribution System and represents the distribution system (a kind of backbone) between the access points, via which the data is transmitted that has to be transmitted from one radio cell to another. Either wired solutions (Ethernet) or wireless solutions (WLANs) can be used as DS. DSSS stands for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum and is a spread spectrum method that is used with and b solutions for data transmission. With this method, the narrowband user data is converted into a broadband signal using a spreading code and optimized for data transmission. DSSS enables data rates of 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mbit / s. EIRP stands for Effective Isotropic Radiated Power and describes the power that would have to be added to an isotropic spherical radiator so that it would effectively radiate the same power in the preferred direction of the antenna under consideration (see dbi). ETSI Abbreviation for European Telecommunications Standards Institute, a European standardization authority that defines the approval and requirements for the use of frequency bands within Europe. 51
52 2002 What is a wireless LAN? WLAN glossary ETS European standard that was adopted in 1994 and defines guidelines for the operation and approval criteria of transmission facilities in the 2.4 GHz band that use spread spectrum technology as the modulation method. FHSS Stands for Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum and describes a spread spectrum method that is used in solutions and enables data rates of 1 or 2 Mbit / s. The existing frequency band is divided into 79 sub-bands that are used alternately during data transmission. The order in which the sub-band is used is determined via a hopping sequence (hopping pattern). Radio cell An area that can be illuminated and supplied by a station. All stations located within the radio cell can, in principle, exchange data. 52 IAPP Is the abbreviation for Inter Access Point Protocol, which in future will serve as the basis for data exchange between the access points. IAPP is to be specified as an f-extension and in future ensure compatibility between access points from different manufacturers. It is currently recommended to set up a WLAN with access points from a single manufacturer. IBSS IBSS, stands for Independent Basic Service Set and describes an independent WLAN that stands on its own.
53 What is a wireless LAN? WLAN glossary Infrastructure network Extended form of a WLAN that has a connection to an existing infrastructure or uses an infrastructure as a distribution system in order to connect several access points to ensure comprehensive coverage. IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and is an association of international engineers based in the USA. The IEEE is primarily concerned with the elaboration, adoption and publication of standards in the network area. ISM band Frequency band that may be used for industrial, scientific and medical (Industrial Scientific Medical) applications without a license or approval. OFDM Stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and corresponds to a transmission method in which the frequency band is divided into several sub-bands. The data is not transmitted sequentially, but in parallel on the sub-bands, which means that transmission rates of up to 54 Mbit / s can be achieved. 53 Roaming A roaming function enables roaming between different radio cells of a WLAN without losing the connection to the WLAN.
54 2002 What is a wireless LAN? WLAN glossary SSID Stands for Service Set Identifier and corresponds to the network name of a WLAN that can be used to identify it. The length of the SSID can be between 0 and 32 bytes. UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunication System and is the new mobile radio standard which in the future should provide a data rate of up to 2 Mbit / s. In addition to the actual voice transmission, mobile multimedia applications and user-friendly Internet access are made possible. WLAN Stands for Wireless Local Area Network and is the generic term for radio networks that enable data to be exchanged at a high data rate in a spatially limited area. WEP Stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy and represents a procedure with which a level of security comparable to that in a wired LAN is to be achieved in WLAN. WEP can be used for the encryption of the transmitted data and for the authentication. 54 Wireless Ethernet Common name for WLAN technology that was specified according to the IEEE standard and its extensions. However, you have to take into account that this WLAN technology is an independent protocol that actually has nothing to do with Ethernet, but only uses a similar access method.
55 What is a wireless LAN?
56 100-WIRE Design & Layout: Marko Kaufmann Compu-Shack Production Ringstrasse Neuwied Telephone: Fax:
- How was silk discovered
- What does a price match mean
- Why was the Rosie ODonnell Show canceled
- Is INFP associated with masochism
- How do you prepare to play Jeopardy
- Why do organisms have a lifespan
- Micelles form in other solvents
- How can I learn to massage
- Is mercury a conductor or an insulator
- Are phishing threats limited to email
- How do you verify SSN TIN
- UFO experts are a credible source
- Assyrians are the original Syrians
- How powerful would a dragon peculiarity be
- Famous guitarists have short fingers
- Is better mentioned than meltwater
- How are the advertising prices for magazines calculated
- Where can I get an NCFM module
- What is your opinion on the ban on crypto currency by the RBI
- How to calculate the Bradford factor
- What makes people play every day
- What is the most profitable business ever
- How can you make your company safe?
- What makes a good diary