How common is a cuckold pregnancy



Examples of COMEDIES


Examples of TRAGEDY




The woman has no choice

The woman doesn't know who her partner is

Financial reasons

A woman has a younger lover whom she also helps financially or professionally

Parents want marriage

Big age difference between the spouses

Disgust for the spouse

Alone woman

The woman abandoned by her husband

Female infidelity out of vengeance

The insatiable woman

A woman wants to get pregnant:

Separation by political circumstances

The man suspected infidelity

The woman suspects that the man is dead

The woman falls in love with the wrong person

The widow of the murdered man marries the murderer very quickly after the event:

The woman is not very moral and considers herself two lovers, one for the standard of living and one for the heart:

The married woman wants the affair, but the chosen “lover” doesn't play along

Infidelity out of boredom

No reason


This motif is of course very conflictual and runs through the entire literature and through all genres. Since it is very dramatic, we often find it in dramas - in comedies as well as in tragedies.


Examples of COMEDIES:

1)       Amphytrione substance - comes from the ancient legend about Zeus and his love affairs. Zeus approaches the newly wed Alcmene, the wife of Amphytrion, who is currently taking part in a campaign, in his guise, which of course then leads to a tangible marriage crisis, which the father of the gods resolves personally. Alcmene's infidelity did not really take place because she believed that her husband was approaching her, to whom God gave himself up. This literary material can of course be well packaged in a comedy, which has been done frequently in the course of literary history. Three examples of this: Moliere: amphytrion; Kleist: Amphytrion and the modern version of the material by Axel von Ambesser, which is entitled “Omlette surprise”.

2)       Shakespeare: "A midsummer night's dream“Titania's infidelity leads to complications, but also in comedy "A lot of noise about nothing" it's about - this time supposedly - infidelity

3)       The comedies of the French poet Feydeau often play with this motif, which is the starting point for a variety of entanglements. "Hotel Olympia" should be mentioned as an example

4)       Also the Social comedieswhich were mainly found in England in the second half of the 19th century. are familiar with this motif. Oscar Wilde has designed it several times, for example in his comedy "Lady Windermeres Fan". Here, the daughter's affair is prevented at the last moment, whose marriage broke up because of such an affair. In terms of language and motives, the Austrian writer Hermann Bahr is similar to the aforementioned English author. Here is his linguistically and content-wise enjoyable comedy "The concert" mentioned, in which several cases of infidelity occur: The wife of a pianist who has been betrayed several times wants to dissuade her husband from his antics by teaming up with the husband of the young woman who is ready to commit adultery and very perfectly playing the role of the young lover. However, the project does not succeed because it is not the artist but his students in love who are the driving forces behind the affairs. So the man is the driven one


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Examples of TRAGEDY:


In tragedies, the conflict over the infidelity of a woman naturally does not dissolve in favor but usually ends violently. However, in many works it remains open how far women have actually gone, since this topic was taboo, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. Again, to represent the abundance offered, four examples from different times should be mentioned:

1)       The ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus has the mythological material about the infidelity of Queen Klytaimnestra, the wife of Agamemnon, who commanded the Greek troops before Troy, in his trilogy (three plays are dedicated to one subject and played one after the other) "Oresty " designed. The first part is titled Agamemnon and tells of the return of the victorious king Agamemnon after ten years of war and of his murder by Clytaimnestra and her lover Aigistus. Subsequently, however, the murdered couple also become victims of an act of revenge: Klytaimnestra's children, Elektra and Orestes, murder their mother and lover.

2)       Franz Grillparzer shows us in his first master drama, the tragedy of fate "The ancestor", what pernicious consequences female infidelity can have: The unfaithful ancestor who has been murdered by her husband finds no rest as long as the Borodin sex to which she belongs has not died out. The end of the sex is then portrayed in the drama; we only learn about the ancestor and her infidelity from analytical clues in the drama.

3)       Friedrich Hebbel designed the motif several times from different angles. Let me pick out an example of alleged infidelity. "Herod and Mariamne " deals with biblical material. Herod has to go to war and gives orders to kill his wife Mariamne if he doesn't come back. Mariamne learns of this plan, is accordingly shaken and wants revenge by pretending to Herod, who has returned, that she has been unfaithful. He has her killed and only finds out too late that she is innocent. The best-known example of alleged infidelity and its consequences is probably Shakespear's tragedy "Othello ". The jealous titular hero kills his innocent wife Destemona because he trusts the whisperings of Captain Iago, who feels neglected.

4)      Schnitzler also very often confronts us with the motive of infidelity in his dramas, although the man more often violates marital fidelity. But he gives us an example of a woman's affair in the drama "Flirtation" In the subplot: The young officer Fritz Lobheimer, who is incapable of real feeling, has a young girlfriend who really loves him, but falls in a duel against the horned husband of his former lover.


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1)       The woman has no choicebecause she is forced to infidelity: e.g. the ballad by Detlev von Liliencron: "The Chapel of the Dark Star" (The King of Denmark Erik IV takes one of his knights' girlfriends from one of his knights in order to have fun with her for a short time. However, this circumstance leads to his assassination in 1250)

2)      The woman doesn't know who her partner is, with which she gets involved: This includes the amphytrion substance mentioned above, but there are also other designs of the topic: e.g. Leonhard Frank: "Karl and Anna". (Narration) Karl is with Anna's husband in Russian captivity and the latter tells a lot about Anna to his friend who looks very much like him. When Karl is released earlier, Robert sends him to his wife to tell her that he is still alive. Karl appears there as Robert and when Anna notices the deception, she has already fallen in love with Karl. When Robert comes home, he learns that Anna is choosing the other one.

3)       Financial reasonslead to a marriage with an unloved man who is then betrayed: e.g. Gerhart Hauptmann: "Fuhrmann Henschel" (story) Hanne Scheel actually marries the prosperous inn and not its owner and cheats him with the servants

4)       A woman has a younger lover whom she also helps financially or professionally. Example: Guy de Maupasant: "Bel Ami". (Novel) The unscrupulous George Duroy, who gets the name Bel Ami because of his sleek beauty, rises as a rather shabby young man through the protection of the wife of an acquaintance who is ensnared by him - from the military time in North Africa - to journalistic honors and thus into better society from Paris, but also has other love affairs, mainly with married women, especially the wife of his employer. He, who dreams of a political career, starts a relationship with the couple's daughter, whom he then marries. Start of document

5)       Parents want marriage. Eg Ödön von Horvath: “Stories from the Vienna Woods”. (Drama) The father, owner of a small joke article shop, wants to marry off his daughter Marianne to the callous butcher next door, she runs away with a dashing idiot, has a child and is shipwrecked on everyone Layers until she ends up back at the butcher's as a broken woman.

6)       Big age difference between the spouses.Theodor Fontane: “Effi Briest” (novel) Effi, who is young married by her parents, finds no security with her husband and succumbs briefly to the charm of a high-ranking officer. The relationship is ended by a move and Effi, who now also has a daughter, gets used to her husband. Years later, he finds the letters, kills the officer in a duel and separates from Effi, who only survives this pain briefly.

7)       Disgust for the spouse: Somerset Maugham: "The Colorful Veil" (novel) The heroine, a somewhat unworldly upbred young girl, marries a doctor because he is offering himself, goes with him to China in an English colony, is ensnared and expected by something more attractive Child of him. The doctor who discovered the relationship asks her who the child's father is, he or the lover. Since she cannot answer this, he seeks death while caring for cholera sufferers.

8)       Alone woman: Stefan Zweig: “Amok” (story) An Englishwoman in India is alone for months, because her husband is busy in England, has a relationship with a young man that has consequences. You contact a doctor who refuses abortion. Improper abortion causes blood poisoning. The doctor is called to the dying woman. She makes him promise to keep the real cause of death a secret, which he does, but sacrifices his own life in the process.

9)       The woman abandoned by her husband: Artur Schnitzler: “Das weite Land” (tragic comedy) The industrialist Friedrich Hofreiter is married, but feels rather unattached. The woman holds up the bill and rejects an admirer. This, a sensitive artist, takes this failure as an opportunity to kill himself, which causes Hofreiter to almost reproach his wife for her loyalty. When another young admirer, the son of a friend of Frau Hofreiter, finds her hearing, Friedrich kills him Rivals in the duel, but not out of jealousy or possessiveness but because the offended husband is entitled to this

10)    Female infidelity out of vengeance: Roda Roda: "The jewelry box" (story). A woman is often betrayed by her husband. She knows this because out of a bad conscience he always gives her a piece of jewelry after the end of the affair, and apparently also finds out about the ladies. But one of the jewels in her collection is not from her husband .....!

11)    The insatiable woman:Karl Schönherr: “Der Weibsteufel” (drama) A farmer who also belongs to a group of smugglers wants to use his wife to beguile a border commuter (customs guard) so that the contraband that is expected can cross the border undisturbed. But the challenged woman, initially shy, later takes a liking to the game and stimulates the men with ridicule and a dance that the border crosser kills her husband.

12)    A woman wants to get pregnant: Magret Adkins: "Report of a Maid" (utopian novel) In the distant future, people will be almost sterile. That is why the men keep maidservants, who are only there to bear children, but also get involved with other men in order to have as many chances of pregnancy as possible.

13)    Separation by political circumstances: There is not always real infidelity here, as the first connection was relatively long ago. As an example: Johann Wolfgang Goethe: "Hermann and Dorothea" (epic) The Dorotheas family lives in the border area between Germany and France. Dorothea's fiancé was inspired by the French Revolution and went to Paris, but did not return. As the French subsequently penetrated as far as the Rhine, the German population living there had to flee. Dorothea meets Hermann on the run, whom she then marries. However, the epic only describes the escape, getting to know them, some entanglements and the good outcome.

14)    The man suspected infidelity: (often edited motif) Friedrich Hebbel: “Genoveva” (drama) Count Palatine Siegfried goes on a crusade. His steward, Golo, is now ensnaring Genoveva whom he loves. Since she remains loyal, he accuses her of being unfaithful to her returning husband. Genoveva and her child are said to be killed in the forest by a servant who lets them live, but is killed by Golo after his return. Golo, who is mentally disturbed, also dies by a servant. Hebbel later wrote a follow-up to the drama: Seven Years after these events, the Count Palatine finds his wife hunting in the forest and the intrigue is cleared up.

15)    The woman suspects that the man is dead: (often edited motif) Alfred Tennyson: "Enoch Arden" (verse narration) Enoch Arden and Philip Ray live as friends in an English fishing village. They love the same girl who chooses Enoch. When he had to give up fishing due to an accident, he was afraid that he would no longer be able to support his family and was hired on a ship going to China. This is shipwrecked in which Enochauf can save an island. Years later he returns unrecognized and finds his wife married to Philip. She waited eleven years before taking this step. In order not to disturb the happiness of the two, he settles nearby and watches the progress of his family from a distance. Only at the end of his life does he reveal his true identity

16)    The woman falls in love with the wrong person:Gottfried von Straßburg: "Tristan und Isolde" (Erpos) Tristan is supposed to advertise his master, King Marke um Isolde. Since the brand is unknown to Isolde, her mother gives her a love potion that is supposed to bind the two spouses together. But Tristan and Isolde accidentally drink from it before they get married. Isolde still has to marry Marke, but she can't help but cheat on him with Tristan.

17)    The widow of the murdered man marries the murderer very quickly after the event:William Shakespeare: “Hamlet” The starting point of the drama is that Hamlet learns from his father's ghost that he had been killed by his brother and that Hamlet should avenge his father by killing the murderer who immediately married his wife.

18)    The woman is not very moral and considers herself two lovers, one for the standard of living and one for the heart:August von Kotzebue: “The two Klingsbergs” In the rather turbulent comedy, father and son Klingsberg always get in each other's way because they are courting the same woman several times. One of the courted is an actress who lets the old count hold her up in order to be able to afford the young count.

19)    The married woman wants the affair, but the chosen “lover” doesn't play along: The Greek saga Phaedra, which was later designed several times, especially by the French Racine, belongs to the legends around Theseus. Phaedra is his second wife and falls in love with the son from his first marriage. Since Hippolytus does not want to know anything about Phaedra, she blackens him to Theseus, saying that he wanted to seduce her. Theseus now curses his son who is killed by a sea monster.

20)    Infidelity out of boredom:Brigitte Schwaiger: "How does the salt get into the sea" A not very eager girl from a good family marries a son-in-law whom her parents want and whom she does not particularly love. The affair is inevitable, as the young woman doesn't have much to do either

21)    No reason Ingeborg Bachmann's novel “Malina” indicates the triangular relationship between a woman and two men. The relationship is just as it is described. It is not analyzed.

Of course there are other constellations, but the most important in this complex set of problems are listed here and there are lots of literary works of every quality on this topic - feel inspired by this list to keep looking, a good tip: Ibsen, Schnitzler, Zweig, Zuckmayer, Shakespeare , Grillparzer, but also Goethe and Schiller are among others.



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