How good a nucleophile is HPO4

Acids, bases, air pollutants

Chemistry pp 141-170 | Cite as

  • Peter Kurzweil
First Online:


Chapter 7 presents the definition, nomenclature and chemistry of acids, bases and salts, as well as neutralization and hydrolysis, methods of dimensional analysis, titration curves, indicators, buffer solutions, the conversion of concentration measures and dilutions, the pH calculation and indispensable basic analytical knowledge in practical terms Clear tables and formula overviews provide support in university and school training, in quantitative-analytical laboratory internships for chemists, pharmacists and engineers, and as a compact reference work in professional practice.

Every child knows that formic acid stings the skin. Chemical burns with acids and bases (alkalis) should be prevented by occupational safety measures. LIEBIG recognized: If you pour acids and bases together, they neutralize each other and salts are formed.

ARRHENIUS explained the corrosive effect with the formation of hydrogen ions H+ and hydroxide ions OHif acids or bases disintegrate when dissolved in water. These dissociation is an exothermic chemical reaction.

Acids form H by dissociation in aqueous solution+-Ions and Bases OH-Ions.

Salts consist of metal cations and residual acid anions.

In chemistry, a substance is acidic when it gives the base protons! BRÖNSTED and LOWRY shaped today's idea of Acid-base pairs. Acids are molecules or ions that make H.+ release and thereby form the corresponding base. Bases are molecules or ions that make H.+ absorb, and thereby form the corresponding acid.

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© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1. MBUTOTH Amberg-Weiden MBUTAmbergGermany