Is the Czech Republic a communist country
After World War II, the political system in Czechoslovakia was heavily influenced by a Soviet-style communist regime, as in other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The system of separation of powers was out of whack. The three powers necessary for a functioning democracy (executive, legislative, judicial) had been replaced by a single one. This power was enshrined in the constitution and so the Communist Party, with the use of repressive measures and the supervision of the USSR, ruled almost all levels of social and political life in the country for over 40 years. After the communist seizure of power in February 1948, the communist party became the only political factor. Although it allowed a few parties grouped together in a so-called National Front, these had no real power. They were created or tolerated in order to create the image of Czechoslovakia as a democratic state.
The 1960s were a bright spot when the Czechoslovak Communist Party under Alexander Dubček tried to implement a liberalization and democratization program in the spring of 1968. In the course of this “Prague Spring”, the attempt was made to create “socialism with a human face” (Czech: socialism s lidskou tváří) to accomplish. The reform efforts came to an abrupt end with the violent crackdown on August 21, 1968 by invading Warsaw Pact troops. As a result, with the beginning of "normalization", the ČSSR became one of the most conservative member states of the so-called Eastern Bloc.
After the revolutionary events of November 1989, which meant the fall of the communist regime, the entire country faced the difficult task of building on its traditions of the pre-communist era and building a democratic system of government. Even before the division of Czechoslovakia into two sovereign states on December 31, 1992, there was an established and broad spectrum of political parties. The Constitution of the Czech Republic, which came into force on the day the new state was born, stipulates the rights of citizens, regulates the relationship between the executive and legislative branches and regulates the independence of the courts.
The government is the supreme body of the executive. It consists of the Prime Minister, his deputy and the ministers. It coordinates and directs the activities of the ministries and the central organs of state administration. The government submits the draft law on the state budget and the draft state budget statement.
The president was traditionally elected by parliament at a joint session of the two chambers for a period of five years. The 2013 presidential election was the first direct election of a president in the Czech Republic and the result of a constitutional amendment that was passed in February 2012 by a majority in the Senate and in December 2011 by a majority in the Chamber of Deputies. He may hold office for a maximum of two terms. He is the commander in chief of the armed forces. The president's power is limited; his most important instrument is the right of veto on laws already passed by parliament, with the exception of constitutional laws. This power is suspended in times of constitutional or political crisis.
houses of Parliament
The parliament is composed of two chambers - the House of Representatives and the Senate. Parliament passes laws applicable to the Czech Republic and approves important international agreements, in particular those relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms, political agreements and economic agreements of a general nature. It decides on the most important actions of the state such as a declaration of a state of war or the stationing of foreign armed forces on the territory of the Czech Republic.
House of Representatives
The House of Representatives consists of 200 MPs who are elected for a term of four years (the last elections took place on October 20 and 21, 2017. The President can dissolve the House of Representatives in cases enshrined in the Constitution. Political groups and groups, permanent Parliamentary committees and working groups work in the historic building that houses the House of Representatives.
The Senate consists of 81 senators who are elected for a term of six years. A third of the senators are elected every two years. The Senate cannot be dissolved.
Resolutions of Parliament
A simple majority of the MPs or senators present is required for a chamber to pass resolutions. A majority of 60% of all MPs or senators is required to pass resolutions on a constitutional law or to approve an international agreement.
Bills are introduced in the Chamber of Deputies. They can be introduced by individual representatives, a group of representatives, the Senate, the government or the representative body of a higher territorial self-government unit. A bill passed by the Chamber of Deputies is forwarded to the Senate. The latter can veto, return the draft with proposed changes or approve it.
of the House of Representatives and the Senate take place by secret voting on the basis of general, equal and direct suffrage. The House of Representatives is elected according to proportional representation. Political parties must get five percent of the valid votes in order to receive a seat in this chamber. The Senate is elected by majority voting. Every citizen of the Czech Republic who has reached the age of 18 has the right to vote for both chambers. Any citizen of the Czech Republic over the age of 21 can be elected to the Chamber of Deputies, and any citizen of the Czech Republic over the age of 40 can be elected to the Senate.
Party factions in the House of Representatives
The distribution of seats among the parties based on the results of the elections to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic on October 20-21, 2017 (total number of seats 200):
ANO - Action of dissatisfied citizens ANO 2011 / seats: 78 / chairman: Jaroslav Faltýnek (party chairman: Andrej Babiš)
ODS - Civic Democratic Party / Seats: 23 / Chairman: Zbyněk Stanjura (Party Chairman: Petr Fiala)
Piráti - Czech Pirate Party / Seats: 22 / Chairman: Jakub Michálek (Party Chairman: Ivan Bartoš)
SPD - Freedom and direct democracy / Seats: 19 / Chairman: Radim Fiala (party chairman: Tomio Okamura)
KSČM - Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia / Seats: 15 / Chairman: Pavel Kováčik (Party Chairman: Vojtěch Filip)
ČSSD - Czech Social Democratic Party / Seats: 14 / Chairman: Jan Chvojka (Party Chairman: Jan Hamáček)
KDU-ČSL - Christian and Democratic Union / Seats: 10 / Chairman: Jan Bartošek (party chairman: Marian Jurečka)
TOP 09 - Tradition, Responsibility, Properity 09 / Seats: 7 / Chairman: Miroslav Kalousek (party leader: Markéta Pekarová Adamová)
STAN - Mayors and independents / Seats: 6 / Chairman: Jan Farský (party chairman: Vít Rakušan)
Supreme Control Authority
is an independent control body. It is responsible for the control of the state-owned economic activity and the fulfillment of the state budget. It controls how the funds in the state budget of the Czech Republic are brought in and used.
Czech National Bank (ČNB)
is the central bank of the state. Its main goal is to maintain the currency's stability and purchasing power. In pursuing this goal, it is independent of the government. The members of the Bank Council are appointed by the President.
is the body of jurisdiction for the protection of the constitutional order. It is composed of 15 judges appointed for ten years. The judges are appointed by the President of the Republic with the approval of the Senate. The judges are only bound in their decisions by constitutional laws, international agreements and the rules for proceedings before the constitutional court.
is the supreme body of jurisdiction in all powers that fall within the jurisdiction of the courts, with the exception of matters incumbent on the Constitutional Court or the Supreme Administrative Court. In making decisions, each judge is only bound by the law; he is entitled to judge the conformity of another legal provision with the law.
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