Suppression can be good 1

Declaration of human and civil rights of August 26, 1789

Since the representatives of the French people, established as the National Assembly, considered that ignorance, forgetting or contempt for human rights are the only causes of public unhappiness and depravity of governments, they have decided to revoke the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of To present people in a solemn declaration so that this declaration is constantly in view of all members of society and constantly reminds them of their rights and duties; so that the acts of the legislative as well as the executive may at any moment be compared with the ultimate purpose of any political institution and thereby be more respected; so that the claims of the citizens, henceforth based on simple and indisputable principles, may always be directed towards the preservation of the constitution and the common good.

As a result, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the protection of the Most High, the following human and civil rights:

ART. 1.

Human beings are and will remain free from birth and equal in rights. Social differences should only be based on the common good.

ART. 2.

The goal of any political association is the preservation of natural and inalienable human rights. These rights are freedom, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

ART. 3.

The origin of all sovereignty ultimately rests in the nation. No corporation, no individual can exercise violence that is not expressly emanating from it.

ART. 4th

Freedom consists in being able to do anything that does not harm another. Thus, the exercise of the natural rights of every human being has only those limits which ensure the enjoyment of equal rights for the other members of society. These limits can only be determined by law.

ART. 5.

Only the law has the right to forbid actions that are harmful to society. Anything that is not prohibited by law cannot be prevented, and no one can be compelled to do what it does not command.

ART. 6th

The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to participate in shaping it personally or through their representatives. It should be the same for everyone, may it protect, may it punish. Since all citizens are equal in his eyes, they are equally admitted to all dignities, positions and offices according to their ability without any difference other than that of their virtues and their talents.

ART. 7th

Each person can only be tried, arrested and imprisoned in the cases determined by the law and in the forms it prescribes. Those who operate, issue, carry out or have carried out arbitrary orders should be punished. But every citizen summoned or apprehended under the law must obey immediately. He makes himself punishable by resistance.

ART. 8th

The law should only stipulate those penalties that are obviously absolutely necessary. And no one can be punished on the basis of a law that has not been enacted, promulgated and lawfully applied prior to the commission of the act.

ART. 9

Since every person is held innocent until he has been found guilty, if his arrest is deemed inevitable, any hardship that is not necessary to ensure his own person should be strictly avoided by law.

ART. 10.

Nobody should be alarmed about their opinions, even religious ones, as long as their utterance does not disturb the public order established by law.

ART. 11.

The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the most precious human rights. Every citizen can therefore write, speak and print freely, subject to responsibility for the abuse of this freedom in the cases determined by the law.

ART. 12th

Securing human and civil rights requires an armed force. This power is therefore used for the benefit of all and not for the particular benefit of those to whom it is entrusted.

ART. 13th

A general fee is essential for the maintenance of the armed forces and for the administrative costs. It must be distributed equally among all citizens, taking into account their financial circumstances.

ART. 14th

All citizens have the right themselves or through their representatives to determine the need for the public charge, to freely approve it, to review its use and to determine its amount, its assessment, its collection and duration.

ART. 15th

Society has the right to hold any public official accountable for his administration.

ART. 16.

A society in which the guarantee of rights is not guaranteed and the separation of powers is not established has no constitution.

ART. 17th

Since property is an inviolable and sacred right, it cannot be deprived of anyone unless it is evidently required by the statutory public need and on the condition of just and prior compensation.