Allahabad University is a central university

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Public University in India

Aligarh Muslim University (abbreviated as AMU) is a leading central university in Aligarh, India, originally founded in 1875 by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College. Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920 under the Aligarh Muslim University Act. It has three off-campus centers in Malappuram (Kerala), the AMU Murshidabad center (West Bengal) and the Kishanganj center (Bihar). The university offers more than 300 courses in traditional and modern branches of education and is an institute of national importance declared under the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India at the beginning.

The university was classified in the 801-1000 QS World University Rankings from 2021,[3] and 17 in India by the National Institutional Ranking Framework in 2020.[4] Various clubs and societies work under the auspices of the university and there are various notable academics, writers, politicians, lawyers, lawyers, athletes, among others as alumni.[citation needed]

History

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the founder of Aligarh Muslim University
Bab-e-Syed, entrance to the university

Financing [edit]

The university was founded in 1875 by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College.[5][6] Commissioned on May 24, 1875.[7] The movement associated with Syed Ahmad Khan and the college came to be known as the Aligarh Movement, which pushed for recognition of the need for a modern education system for the Indian Muslim population.[8] He viewed proficiency in the English and Western sciences as a necessary skill to maintain the political influence of Muslims.[citation needed] Khan's vision for college was based on his attendance at Oxford University and Cambridge University and he wanted to build an educational system similar to the British model.[9]

A committee was formed under the name of the Muslim College Foundation and asked the people to give generous funding. Then the Viceroy and Governor General of India Thomas Baring made a donation of £ 10,000 while the Governor of the Northwestern Provinces contributed £ 1,000 and by March 1874 the budget for the college stood at £ 1,53,920 and 8 anas[7] Maharao Raja Mahamdar Singh Mahamder Bahadur of Patiala contributed £ 58,000 while Raja Shambhu Narayan of Benaras donated £ 60,000.[10] Donations also came from the Maharaja of Vizianagaram.[11] The college was originally attached to the University of Calcutta for the matriculation exam but became a member of Allahabad University in 1885.
[7] The 7th Nizam of Hyderabad, HEH Mir Osman Ali Khan, made a remarkable donation of 5 lakh rupees to this institution in 1918.
[12][13][14][15]

Institution as a university [edit]

Masjid at Aligarh Muslim University

The Muslim University Association was formed around 1900 to promote efforts to transform the college into a university. The Indian government informed the association that a sum of 30 lakhs rupees should be raised to establish the university. For this reason, a Foundation Committee of the Muslim University was established to collect the necessary funds. Contributions were made by both Muslims and non-Muslims.[16]Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan and Aga Khan III had contributed to the realization of the idea by raising funds for the construction of the Aligarh Muslim University.[17] With the MAO College as its core, the Aligarh Muslim University was founded in 1920 by the Aligarh Muslim University Act.[9][18] Aligarh Muslim University's Ahmadi School for the Visually Impaired was established in 1927, and a medical faculty was attached to the university the following year. Ajmal Khan Tibbya College, the College of Unani Medicine, was founded in 1927. Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College Hospital was later established in 1932.[19] Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital was later established as part of the university in 1962.[20] In 1935, the Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology was also established as part of the university.[21]

Before 1939 faculty members and students supported an all-Indian nationalist movement, but after 1939 the political sentiment shifted towards support for a Muslim separatist movement. Students and faculty members supported Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the university became a center of the Pakistani movement.[22][23]

Women's education [edit]

Dr. Sheikh Abdullah (“Papa Mian”) is the founder of the women's college at Aligarh Muslim University and had pushed for women's education, wrote articles and published a monthly women's magazine at the same time. Khatoon. To open the college for women, he had a delegation to Lt. Governor of the United Provinces and at the same time wrote a proposal to Sultan Jahan, Begum of Bhopal. Begum Jahan had been allocated a grant of £ 100 a month for the education of women. On October 19, 1906, he successfully founded a girls' school with five students and a teacher in a rental property in Aligarh.[24] The foundation stone for the girls' hostel was laid by him and his wife Waheed Jahan Begum (“Ala Bi”) on November 7, 1911 after fighting.[24] A high school was later established in 1921, which was given intermediate college status in 1922 and eventually became part of Aligarh Muslim University as an undergraduate college in 1937.[25] Later the daughters of Dr. Abdullah also as head of the women's school.[24] One of his daughters was Mumtaz Jahan Haider, during whose tenure Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad had attended university and had offered a scholarship of £ 9,00,000. She was involved in setting up the women's college, organized various extracurricular events and affirmed the importance of education for Muslim women.[26]

In 2014, then Vice Chancellor Zameer Uddin Shah rejected a request from female students to be allowed to use the Maulana Azad Library, which was reserved for men only. Shah explained that it is not about discipline, it is about space, as if girls were being allowed into the library. There would be “four times as many boys” which would drain the library's capacity.
[27][28][29] Although there was a separate library for the university's Women's College, it wasn't as well stocked as the Maulana Azad Library[27]Smriti Irani, union minister for human resource development, denounced Shah's defense as "insulting the daughters".[28] In response to a petition from the Human Rights Law Network, the Allahabad High Court ruled in November 2014 that the university's ban on female students' use of the library was unconstitutional and that precautions must be taken to facilitate student use of the library regardless of gender.[29][30] The court gave the university until November 24, 2014 to abide by it.[30]

Status of a minority institution [edit]

Aligarh Muslim University is considered an institution of national importance under the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India.[31][32] In 1967 a Constitutional Bank of the Supreme Court ruled that the university is not a minority educational institution protected by the Indian Constitution. The verdict was given in the event that the university was not a party.[33] In 1981 an amendment was made to the Aligarh Muslim University Act, and in 2006 the Allahabad Supreme Court overturned the provision of the law granting minority university status to an educational institution.[34] In April 2016, the Indian government announced that it would not appeal the decision.[35][36] In February 2019, the Indian Supreme Court referred the matter to a constitutional bank of seven judges.[34][33]

The Aligarh Muslim University campus covers 467.6 hectares in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. The nearest train station is Aligarh Junction. It is a residential university where most of the staff and students live on campus. There are 19 student residences (13 for boys and 6 for girls) with 80 student residences.[37] The halls are managed by a provost and a number of teacher guards who take care of various hostels. Each hall has a dining room, a common room with facilities for indoor games, a reading room, a library, sports clubs and literature.[38] The halls are named after people associated with the Aligarh movement and the university.

Sir Syed Hall is the oldest hall in the university. It is home to many historical buildings such as the Strachey Hall, Mushtaq Manzil, Asman Manzil, the Nizam Museum and Lytton Library, Victoria Gate and Jama Masjid.[39]

The campus also maintains a cricket ground, Willingdon Pavilion, synthetic hockey rink, and a park, Gulastan-e-Syed.[40]

Other notable buildings on campus include the Maulana Azad Library, Moinuddin Ahmad Art Gallery, Kennedy Auditorium, Musa Dakri Museum, Cultural Education Center, Siddons Debating Union Hall, and Sir Syed House.[41][42][43]

The main gate of the university is called Bab-e-Syed. In 2020 a new gate called the Centenary Gate was built to celebrate the university's 100th anniversary.[44]

Organization and administration [edit]

Leadership [edit]

The formal head of the university is the chancellor, although this is a title character and is not involved in the day-to-day work of the university. The Chancellor is elected by the members of the University Court. The chief executive of the university is the vice-chancellor, who is appointed by the Indian president on the recommendation of the court. The court is the highest governing body of the university and exercises all powers of the university not otherwise provided in the Aligarh Muslim University Act and the university's statutes, ordinances and regulations.[45]

In 2018, Mufaddal Saifuddin was elected Chancellor and Ibne Saeed Khan, the former Nawab of Chhatari, was elected Pro-Chancellor. Syed Zillur Rahman was elected Treasurer of Honor.[46] On May 17, 2017, Tariq Mansoor took over the position of 39th Vice Chancellor of the university.[47]

Faculties [edit]

Aligarh Muslim University's academic departments are divided into 13 faculties.[48]

Universities [edit]

Aligarh Muslim University has 7 colleges.[49]

  • Women's school
  • Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology
  • Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College
  • Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Dental College
  • Community College
  • Academic staff college

In addition, the university has 15 centers, 3 institutes, 10 schools, including Minto Circle and the Ahmadi School for the Visually Impaired [50] The university's theological faculty has two departments, one for the Shiite school of thought and one for the Sunni school of thought.[51]

Aligarh Muslim University has established three centers in Malappuram (Kerala; AMU Malappuram Campus), Murshidabad (West Bengal) and Kishanganj (Bihar), while a location has been identified for the center in Aurangabad (Maharashtra).[52][53]

Academic profile [edit]

Courses [edit]

Aligarh Musilim University offers over 300 degrees and is organized into 12 faculties that offer courses in various technical and professional subjects as well as interdisciplinary subjects. In 2011 two new centers were opened in West Bengal and Kerala for studying MBAs and Integrated Law. The university has around 28,000 students and a faculty with nearly 1,500 teaching staff. Students come from all states of India and various countries, with most of the international students coming from Africa, West Asia and South East Asia. Admission to the university is based on admission.[54]

Ranking lists [edit]

Internationally, AMU 801-1000 was ranked in the QS World University Rankings from 2021.[3] In the same ranking, Asia was between 251 and 260 in 2020[55] and 138 among the BRICS countries in 2019.[56] It was ranked by the 801-1000 in the world Times Higher Education World University Rankings from 2020,[57] 201–250 in Asia[58] and 201–250 among emerging markets in 2020.[59] It was a total of 31 in India by the National Institutional Ranking Framework in 2020[60] and 17th among universities.[4]

Among the state engineering colleges, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology, the university's engineering school, was rated 16th India today in 2019[citation needed] and 39 of the National Institutional Ranking Framework among engineering schools in 2020.[63]

The law faculty was ranked 8th in India India today in 2019.[67] Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, the university's medical faculty, was voted 18th by India today in 2019.[65]

Libraries [edit]

Maulana Azad Library, Aligarh Muslim University

The Maulana Azad Library is the main library of the university and consists of a central library and over 100 departmental and university libraries. It houses royal decrees from Mughal emperors such as Babur, Akbar and Shah Jahan.[70] The foundation stone for the library was laid in 1877 at the time the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College was founded by Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, then Viceroy of India, and named after him as the Lytton Library. The current seven-story building was inaugurated in 1960 by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. The library was named after Abul Kalam Azad, popularly known as Maulana Azad, the first female minister of education of independent India.[70][71]

The social science cyber library was inaugurated on December 27, 2013 by Pranab Mukherjee, the then Indian president.[72] In 2015 it was certified by the International Organization for Standardization.[73]

Student life [edit]

Traditions [edit]

Sherwani is worn by male university students and is a traditional university dress. It must be worn during official programs[74] The university offers Sherwanis at a subsidized price.[75] In early 2013, Zameer Uddin Shah, then vice-chancellor of the university, insisted that male students must wear sherwani if ​​they want to meet him.[76]

The AMU Tarana, or hymn, was composed by the poet and student Majaz.[77] It is an abridged version of Majaz ‘poem Narz-e-Aligarh from 1933.[78] In 1955, Khan Ishtiaq Mohammad, a university student, composed the song and was adopted as the university's official anthem. The song is played along with the national anthem during every event at the university.[79]

Student Union [edit]

The Aligarh Muslim University Students ‘Union or AMUSU is the university-wide agency for university students. It is an elected body.

Associations and societies [edit]

The university has sports and cultural associations under its auspices. The Siddons Union Club is the university's debating club.[80] It was founded in 1884 and named after Henry George Impey Siddons, the first director of MAO College.[81] It has hosted politicians, writers, Nobel Prize winners, gamers and journalists, including the Dalai Lama, Mahatma Gandhi, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Jawahar Lal Nehru.[82] The sports clubs include the Aligarh Muslim University Cricket Club[83] and the Muslim University Riding Club.[84]

The university's Raleigh Literary Society hosts competitive events, plays, and performances.[85][86] including performances of Shakespeare's plays.[87] The society is named after the Shakespeare critic Sir Walter Raleigh, who was an English professor at the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College from 1885 to 1887.[87]

The University's Law Society was founded in 1894 as a not-for-profit student organization. The society publishes legal reviews and organizes both academic and social events, from the annual festival to the freshman and final year student farewell party.[88][89]

Cultural festivals [edit]

Every year the different clubs of the university organize their own cultural festivals. Two notable festivals are the University Film Club's Filmsaaz and the Literary Club's AMU Literary Festival.

Student media [edit]

AMU Journal [edit]

AMU Journal is an independent student newspaper and online news / media portal.[90] It was founded in 2016 by a group of AMU students to address campus issues and provide news and information about happening events within the university.[91][circular reference] The AMU Journal has over 200,000 online users including website and social media, 100,000 monthly viewers, 2900 subscribers on the YouTube channel and 64,000 followers on Facebook.[92] and 15k followers on Twitter.

Old Boys Club [edit]

Old Boys Association is the university's alumni network. It was established in 1898 and is legally recognized under AMU, Act 1920.[93]

Notable alumni and faculties [edit]

The following is a list of the university's alumni.[94]

  • Literature and cinema alumni include - Hakim Ahmad Shuja, Saadat Hasan Manto, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Anubhav Sinha, NaseerUddin Shah and Hasrat Mohani.
  • Political alumni include: Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan KBE, Punjab's first Muslim prime minister; Maulvi Syed Tufail Ahmad Manglori, Indian independence activist and historian;[95]Khwaja Nazimuddin, second governor general and second Pakistani prime minister; Ayub Khan, second President of Pakistan; Mohamed Amin Didi, first President of the Maldives; Muhammad Mansur Ali, third Prime Minister of Bangladesh; Zakir Husain, third President of India;[96]Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, an Indian independence activist; Mohammad Hamid Ansari, twelfth Vice President of India;[97]Arif Mohammad Khan, twenty-second governor of Kerala;[98]Anwara Taimur, the first and only Prime Minister of the Indian state of Assam;[99]Sheikh Abdullah and Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, third and sixth Prime Ministers of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir;[100][101] and Sahib Singh Verma, fourth Prime Minister of India's Delhi Area.
  • Legal alumni include - Justice Baharul Islam, Justice Ram Prakash Sethi, Justice Saiyed Saghir Ahmad, Justice Syed Murtaza Fazl Ali (all judges of the Supreme Court of India) and NR Madhava Menon.
  • Sports alumni include - Dhyan Chand, Lala Amarnath, and Zafar Iqbal.[102]
  • Other notable alumni are - the Indian historian Mohammad Habib,[103] French mathematician André Weil,[104][105] and Malik Ghulam Muhammad, the co-founder of Mahindra & Mahindra.
  • Yasin Mazhar Siddiqi Muslim scholar and historian who served as director of the Institute for Islamic Studies

In popular culture

Further reading [edit]

  • Ahmad, Aijaz (2015). Aligarh Muslim University: An Educational and Political History, 1920–47. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN.
  • Graff, Violette (Aug. 11, 1990). "Aligarh's Long Search for Minority Status: AMU (Amendment) Act, 1981". Economic and Political Week. 25 (32): 1771-1781. JSTOR 4396615.
  • Hasan, Mushirul; Qadri, Mohd. Afzal Husain (March 1, 1985). “Nationalist and Separatist Tendencies in Aligarh, 1915–47”. Indian economic and social history. 22 (1): 1-33. doi: 10.1177 / 001946468502200101.
  • Minault, Gail; Lelyveld, David (1974). “The Campaign for a Muslim University, 1898-1920”. Modern Asian studies. 8 (2): 145-189. doi: 10.1017 / S0026749X00005448. JSTOR 311636.
  • Noorani, AG (May 13, 2016). “History of Aligarh Muslim University”. The front line. Retrieved October 2, 2019.

References [edit]

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