What are some types of organizational structure

organization structure

The organizational structure indicates the system of regulations in the company organization. It represents the vertically and horizontally structured system of competencies in the company. Organization type of production

Breakdown of the bank into business areas, departments, positions, etc. Must reflect the breakdown of tasks in the bank.

In economic sociology: term for the permanent structure of social rules and regularities in the execution of work, communication and control between the members of an authority or a company as well as for the principle of order on which these rules and regularities are based. On the one hand, the organizational structure describes the structure of the internal organizational positions (with their respective material resources, tasks and competencies) and, on the other hand, the principle of order of the processes by which an organizational unit distinguishes itself from its environment and maintains it.

The entirety of the formal regulations that control the organizational structure of the work process. In the organizational structure, the type and scope of the division of labor (specialization) as well as the organizational assignment of the services rendered based on the division of labor (coordination in organizations, management system) are laid down. The process organization coordinates the process of operational service provision in terms of personnel, space and time. The formal regulations are systematically designed with a target system in mind and justify specific expectations of the behavior of the members of the organization by defining their rights and obligations with regard to the task at hand. The formal organizational structure thus limits the scope of action of the members of the organization by assigning them certain tasks, positions and roles. In addition, it also stipulates rights to the benefit of the company's performance (wages, salaries, royalties, special payments, residual income). In addition to the formal organizational structure, however, several other factors influence the way in which individuals act in organizations: the personal characteristics of the organization members, their motives, expectations and skills, the behavior of work colleagues and inter-company reference groups. In addition, the influencing factors fixed on societal and cultural values ​​should be mentioned, e.g. the system of industrial relations or the training system. Organizational structures provide rules that must first be enforced in order to bring about the desired action. The fact that the organization members mostly correspond to the behavioral expectations can on the one hand be due to the fact that they accept them as legitimate. They believe that the respective organizational structure best suits their interests or values. The members of the organization can also have largely internalized the rules as a result of socialization processes based on established tradition. Ultimately, behavioral expectations can also be obeyed because individuals or groups have the power to assert their ideas against others (rule, authority). All three reasons will apply to different organization members to different degrees. However, compliance with the organizational rules will always be linked to various positive and negative sanctions (e.g. complaints, career system, remuneration or quality of cooperation), which - as an organizational metastructure, as it were - are intended to ensure compliance with the rules formally established with the organizational structure. The dimensions, with the help of which different basic patterns of organizational structures can be distinguished, are linked on the one hand to the distribution and on the other hand to the creation of operational services. With regard to the distribution of the service result, a distinction is usually made according to the - legal form (e.g. - corporation, partnership, cooperative, work contract, subcontraction). Organizational basic patterns, which are based on the operational provision of services, are based either on different types of specialization or on those of coordination in organizations. The specialization in the fulfillment of certain tasks leads, if they z. B. is carried out according to the criterion of performance, for functional organization. If you decide on the type of objects to be processed, the result is a -divisional organization. There are various mixed forms, such as matrix organization, as well as different types of specialization with regard to the management system (staff / line organization, project management, matrix organization). If, on the other hand, one proceeds from the structuring criterion of coordination, a distinction can be made between hierarchical (hierarchy) and team-like coordinated (team coordination) organizational forms, which refer to procedural guidelines to different degrees and are formalized (formalization) or centralized (centralization / decentralization) (bureaucracy) to different degrees. . Here, too, there are diverse mixed forms. A distinction must be made between two complexes of factors influencing the organizational structure: determinants that are linked in different ways to the people who work in the organization and whose behavior is influenced by certain organizational solutions. · Characteristics of the organization and its environment, collectively referred to as context factors. Depending on how they can be influenced, a distinction is made between organizational and environmental context factors. The former can be designed by the organization itself. the. Organizational structure and organization-related context factors (for examples see Fig.) Can therefore be mutually adapted to one another. On the other hand, environment-related context factors (examples see Fig.) Are not freely selectable by the individual organization. It therefore has to adapt its organizational structure to these contextual factors. The context factors do not directly determine the design of the organizational structure. This is always the result of the actions of the members of the organization who decide in favor of certain organizational structures in the light of the possibilities and limitations of action they perceive. So if different organizational structures are implemented even under identical context conditions, this can be due to the different perceptions of the situation by the decision-makers, perhaps also as a result of differentiated strategic considerations and management philosophies (organizational principles, organizational culture) or simply an expression of the fact that not always only one organizational structure fits a certain contextual situation. Literature: Kieser, AlKubicek, H., Organization, 2nd edition, Berlin, New York 1983. Staehle, W. H., Management, 6th edition, Munich 19991.

[s.a. Marketing organization] Organizational structures are control systems for influencing (controlling) the behavior of employees in a company with regard to an overarching overall goal (cf. Frese, 2000, p. 243). They are the order of a social system created by rules and thus the result of efforts to organize (cf. Steinmann / Schreyögg, 1997, p. 392f.). In general, organizational structures are based on a variety of approaches to explaining the structure of organizations. From a historical perspective, as undertaken by Kieser (1992, Sp. 1648ff.), The structural design efforts are already characterized by the inherent conflict, on the one hand to strive for the most permanent possible stability of employee activities, on the other hand to be able to guarantee the necessary disposition and innovative ability for the company .

In general, the same structuring principles can be applied to international companies as to nationally active companies (cf. Macharzina, 1999, p. 707), so that the multiple design alternatives are more or less transferrable. These include, for example, single-line and multi-line systems, staff organization, matrix organization, and tensor organization.

Macharzina (1999, p. 707E) shows two ideal-typical design alternatives for the organization of internationally active companies. He differentiates between a differentiated structure that separates domestic and foreign activities and an integrated structure that does not separate these activities. The subdivision takes into account the extent of foreign activities in a certain sense and shows the different stages of development of the internationalizing companies in a structural sense (cf. also Macharzina / Oesterle, 1995, pp. 203ff .; Welge, 1980, p. 193). Mixed structures or combined organizational structures, differentiated and integrated organizational structures, are referred to as hybrid structures. A hybrid organizational structure, as shown in Overview 106, is recommended for those companies whose subsystems operate in environments with different dynamics.

"Differentiated structures are formed primarily in those international companies whose foreign involvement is still relatively small in relation to their size characteristics or whose production program can be described as standardized or homogeneous with regard to national requirements" (Welge, 1992, p. 595). The three main ideal structures are the export department, the international division and holding concepts.

In the case of integrated structures or integrated forms of organization, domestic and foreign activities are subordinated to uniform or integrated management. "The empirical types of the integrated structure include the integrated functional, the product-oriented (division organization) and the regional structure as well as the multidimensional matrix and grid structure" (Welge, 1992, p. 596).

The functional or regional organizational structure is similar, but on the first level there is a differentiation according to functions or regions. Organizational design in internationally active companies has to do with the creation of framework structures that correspond to the internationalization strategy and the degree of internationalization of companies. It investigates the way in which certain internationalization strategies correspond to certain organizational models or forms, and secondly, in what way the chosen organizational structure also depends on the degree of internationalization of the company. Macharzma (1999, p. 393ff.) Describes organizational design as a process of building and changing organizational structures. One of the best-known starting points for organizational design, especially in the field of international management, is the thesis "structure follows strategy" formulated by Chandler (1962). This thesis, which has often been criticized in recent literature, postulates the necessity of making adjustments to the company's internal structures depending on different internationalization strategies.

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