What military base is in Oyo Nigeria

ACCORD - Austrian Center for Country of Origin & Asylum Research and Documentation

ecoi.net theme dossier on Nigeria: Security Situation / ecoi.net featured topic on Nigeria: Security Situation

German version below

The ecoi.net topic dossiers offer an overview of a selected topic. The Nigeria thematic dossier deals with the most important current security incidents, divided into the three parts of the country: North, South and Central Nigeria. The information comes from selected sources and does not claim to be complete.

1. General information
2. Overview of security-relevant incidents
3. The central part of the country and Abuja
3.1. General information
3.2. Current situation
4. Boko Haram and the northern states
4.1. General information
4.2. Current situation
5. Southern Nigeria, Biafra and the Niger Delta
5.1. General information
5.2. Current situation
6. Additional sources with information on the security situation in Nigeria
7. Sources

Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa, with 175 million inhabitants the most populous country on the continent and also a creative power on the African continent and in the world. The country is facing major challenges, however, as the income from oil production has so far hardly had a poverty-reducing effect. More than two thirds of the population live in extreme poverty and there is high unemployment (GIZ, undated) [i]. Corruption and mismanagement have undermined the authority and legitimacy of the state. Despite extensive oil and gas reserves, the indicators for human development are among the lowest in the world (CRS, July 18, 2012, Summary) [ii].

Nigeria is made up of 36 states divided into 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs) and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Abuja. Each state has a government and a State House of Assembly. GIZ, December 2015)

After the end of military rule in May 1999, the fourth republic was proclaimed with the election of Olusegun Obasanjo. Since then, the conflict in Nigeria has been characterized by an uprising in the Niger Delta, periodic outbreaks of violence in the “Middle Belt” and an increase in violence in the northeast (FfP, April 21, 2014) [iii]. Goodluck Jonathan was elected President in 2011 following the death of President Yar’Adua, who succeeded Obasanjo (USDOS, June 25, 2015, Executive Summary) [iv]. Muhammadu Buhari has been President of Nigeria since May 2015 (BBC, October 2, 2015) [v].

Ethnic and religious conflicts are commonplace in Nigeria. Divisions between ethnic groups, between North and South and between Christians and Muslims are often related to issues of access to land, jobs and socio-economic development and are sometimes fueled by politicians. The Islamist group Boko Haram is contributing to the deterioration in security conditions in the north. In the southern Niger Delta region, local grievances related to oil production exacerbated simmering conflict and crime for over a decade. Government efforts to negotiate with local insurgents, including an amnesty program, calmed the southern region. However, the peace is fragile and violent crime continues. (CRS, July 18, 2012, p. 1)


The following map created by the Austrian Center for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (ACCORD) shows incidents with at least one fatality that occurred between April and June 2018. The data processed in the map comes from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) of the University of Sussex:

Further information on ACLED and the recorded incidents can be found in the following document:


(States: Adamawa, Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger, Plateau, Taraba)

3.1. General information

While Nigeria is best known for its oil and gas production, 70 percent of the country's workforce is employed in agriculture. Small farms in the center and south of the country are responsible for most of the tuber and vegetable harvests, while the herders in the north generate most of the grain and livestock. Historically, the relationships between the shepherds and the sedentary farming communities have been harmonious. The shepherds 'cattle manured the peasants' land in exchange for grazing rights. However, tensions have increased over the past decade with violent incidents in the central and southern states. Incidents have already occurred in at least 22 of the 36 Nigerian states. (ICG, September 19, 2017, p. 1) [vi]

The state of Plateau lies on the border between the largely Christian south and the predominantly Muslim north and has been affected by irregular ethnic and religious tensions for decades. The predominantly agricultural Christian communities claim that the Muslim Fulani shepherds want to appropriate the areas of the so-called indigenous population. The Fulani counter that they have been discriminated against and denied their basic rights, including access to land, education and political office, despite having lived in the area for generations. According to observers, over 10,000 people have been killed in Plateau since 2000. (AFP, September 17, 2015) [vii]

Religiously motivated violence is particularly a problem in the city of Jos. The tensions between the communities in the culturally diverse “Middle Belt” are both religious and ethnic and are the result of competition for resources between ethnic groups classified as “settlers” or “indigenous”. In Jos, the predominantly Christian Berom are considered indigenous, while the predominantly Muslim Hausa-Fulani are considered settlers. (CRS, November 15, 2013, p. 12)

The violent conflict has now taken on tribal, religious and regional dimensions. Every year around 2,500 people are killed in the Middle Belt and in areas south of it. The conflict is already so deadly that many Nigerians fear it could become as dangerous as the Boko Haram uprising. (ICG, July 20, 2017)

3.2. Current situation

Since January 2018, over 1,300 people have been killed in an escalation in violence between shepherds and farmers. The conflict developed from spontaneous reactions and provocations to the now deadlier planned attacks. The states of Benue, Plateau, Adamawa, Nasarawa and Taraba are particularly affected. (ICG, July 26, 2018, Principal Findings)

In the first half of 2018, there were several clashes between shepherds and farmers in the states of the Middle Belt. (UN Security Council, June 29, 2018, p. 4) [viii]

On June 23, 2018, a large, coordinated attack by Fulani herders on ethnic Berom farmers in Barkin Ladi, Plateau state, killing around 200 people. The following day, the government stationed troops in the area and in the neighboring states of Benue and Taraba, where clashes between shepherds and farmers had also occurred since the beginning of the year. In the state of Plateau the fighting continued in the following days and affected Barkin Ladi and the neighboring areas of Mangu, Riyom, Jos North and Jos South. (ACAPS, July 10, 2018, p. 2) [ix]

Over 20 people were killed in clashes between shepherds and farmers in Benue state. After a shepherd was found dead, according to police, a machete-armed group attacked people, including women and children, in retaliation in Okpokwu district. 24 people were killed. (Thomson Reuters, March 7, 2018) [x]

According to its own information, the Nigerian army will be stationing troops in the central parts of the country. Dozens of people have been killed in clashes between semi-nomadic herders and farmers in recent weeks. A mass funeral was held in January for 73 people killed in violent incidents. (Thomson Reuters, February 7, 2018)

“Since December 31, 2017, around a hundred people have been killed in the framework of the farmer-shepherd conflict in several states. Most of them, 73 farmers and villagers, died in Benue state. They had been killed by Fulani shepherds in remote villages in the Local Government Areas Guma and Logo. The dead were buried on January 11th, 2018 in a mass grave in the capital Makurdi. In response to the incidents, the military transferred special forces to the states of Benue, Taraba and Nasarawa. A new law came into force in Benue on November 1st, 2017, which forbids cattle herders to roam the state as nomads. The conflict between the semi-nomadic Fulani shepherds and the sedentary farmers is a dispute over land and grazing rights. Due to the strong population growth, the pasture routes of the shepherds have been increasingly closed. The increased desertification in northern Nigeria also caused the shepherds to look for new pastureland in more southern areas. " (BAMF, January 15, 2018) [xi]

The Nigerian Air Force flew combat operations in response to an attack by armed herders on towns in Adamawa state on December 4, 2017. Hundreds of shepherds attacked eight localities in retaliation for the killing of 51 members of their community, most of them children. (AI, January 30, 2018) [xii]

The violence between nomads and farmers spread in 2017 from the northern central region to southern parts of the country. Hundreds of people were killed and thousands displaced. In July 2017, over 30 people were killed in two-day clashes in Kaduna state. A similar attack in Plateau state in September 2017 killed 19 people and injured five others. (HRW, January 18, 2018) [xiii]

“In 2017, there were violent clashes between ethnic groups in twelve states, resulting in more than 450 deaths and the displacement of thousands of people. In many cases, conflicts between nomadic cattle herders and sedentary farmers played a role. In February 2017, 21 villagers were killed in a raid attributed to herdsmen in three communities in Atakad district, Kaura, Kaduna state. Witnesses reported that the shepherds killed the villagers and ransacked and set fire to their homes. In June 2017, clashes between ethnic groups on the Mambilla Plateau in the state of Taraba resulted in the deaths of numerous people, the majority of whom were cattle herders and their families. In September, at least 20 people were allegedly killed by cattle herders who entered the village of Ancha, Miango District, Jos, Plateau State, after a misunderstanding between villagers and herdsmen in the area. In October, 27 people were allegedly killed by cattle herders in a primary school in the Nkyie-Doghwro community in Bassa, Plateau state. They had taken refuge there after three days of raids. In December, herders attacked at least five villages in Demsa, Adamawa state, in revenge for a massacre that killed up to 57 people in November in neighboring Kikan, including many minors. Villagers said they tried to escape and were attacked by a fighter plane and a military helicopter in the process. At least 111 people were killed in the air strike and the herdsmen's attack. " (AI, February 22, 2018)

A controversial ban on grazing livestock has been implemented in the state of Benue. The new law provides for livestock to be restricted to livestock farms. A five-year prison sentence is possible for violations. According to Fulani shepherds, the law unfairly targets their nomadic lifestyle. However, the Benue state government states that the goal is to restore peace. (BBC, November 2, 2017)

From January to April 2017 inclusive, over 700 people were killed in clashes between farmers and shepherds. The violent clashes continued to strain relations between the communities. (UN Security Council, June 30, 2017, p.4)

In 2016, land disputes, ethnic differences and tensions between settlers and “indigenous peoples” and religious affiliation led to clashes between Fulani shepherds and farmers in the Middle Belt. In 2016 there were also “silent killings” in which individuals disappeared and were later found dead. There were often retaliatory attacks on individual houses or communities at night. Land rights conflicts continued between members of the Tiv, Kwalla, Jukun, Fulani and Azara ethnic groups who live near the borders of the states of Naswara, Benue and Taraba. (USDOS, March 3, 2017, Section 6)


(States: Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe, Zamfara)

4.1. General information

The Boko Haram was created in 1990 from a group of radical Islamic youth in the Al-Hajji Muhammadu Ndimi mosque in Maiduguri, reports the International Crisis Group (ICG). The former leader of the Boko Haram, Mohammed Yusuf, was previously a preacher and leader of the youth wing of the Salafist group Ahl-Sunnah, Shababul Islam (Vanguard of the Islamic Youth, Islamic Youth Vanguard) (ICG, April 3, 2014, p. 7). According to the German weekly newspaper Die Zeit, experts see “the initial attractiveness of Boko Haram primarily due to the political and social conditions in northern Nigeria: society is ethnically and religiously fragmented, and poverty and unemployment are higher than in other parts of the country. The state only fulfills its tasks to a limited extent, the local governments are often corrupt. While the group acted non-violently in the first few years, it radicalized itself from around 2009 and has been actively fighting the Nigerian state ever since. "(Die Zeit, last updated November 18, 2015) [xiv]

According to Amnesty International (AI), over 4,000 people were killed by the Boko Haram in 2014, although the actual number is believed to be higher. Boko Haram fighters killed at least 1,500 people in the first three months of 2015. Since July 2014, the Boko Haram took larger cities. In February 2015, the group controlled most of Borno state, as well as the states of Adamawa and Yobe. In August 2014, the leader of the Boko Haram, Abubakar Shekau, declared the areas controlled by the group a caliphate (AI, April 13, 2015, p. 3). Shekau later swore allegiance to the Islamic State (IS), whereupon the area controlled by Boko Haram was designated by IS as the “Islamic State of West Africa Province” as part of the aspired global caliphate (BBC, May 4, 2015). In response to Boko Haram's oath of allegiance to the 'Islamic State', Nigeria's neighboring countries Chad and Niger launched a military offensive on Nigerian soil on March 8 (Die Zeit, last updated November 18, 2015). According to the think tank Institute for Economics and Peace's Global Terrorism Index, the Boko Haram is currently the world's deadliest terrorist group. For 2015, the group is assigned responsibility for 6,644 deaths (IEP, November 2015, p. 4) [xv].

In August 2016, ISIS announced that Abu Musab al-Barnawi would replace Abubakar Shekau as the group's new leader. The group split up due to internal fighting. Shekau continues to have supporters and supporters mainly in the Sambisa Forest. This group is known as the Boko Haram. The governments of Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, however, refer to both groups as Boko Haram, with the differentiation “Shekau faction” and “al-Barnawi faction”. (USDOS, September 19, 2018).

More effective measures have been taken against the insurgents since President Buhari's inauguration in May 2015. The insurgents were driven out of most of the areas they had previously controlled. The insurgents reportedly changed tactics towards asymmetric warfare, including kidnapping, rape, forced recruitment of children and adolescents, suicide bombings and sexual slavery. According to experts, however, a full military victory is unlikely and security continues to be seriously threatened by the insurgents. (UNHCR, October 2016, pp. 1-2) [xvi]

4.2. Current situation

In September 2018, reports surfaced that Mamman Nur, a longtime leader of the Boko Haram, had been killed. He is said to have been killed by the Boko Haram faction Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP). (Jamestown Foundation, October 19, 2018) [xvii]

A member of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was killed by members of the Islamic State West Africa Province group who kidnapped the woman in March. The group had already killed another kidnapped woman last month. The same militant group continues to hold a 15-year-old schoolgirl. (BBC, October 16, 2018)

“On September 12th, 2018 fighters of the Islamist terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked a military base of the 145th battalion in the city of Damasak (headquarters of the administration of the Mobbar Local Government Area) in Borno state. In contrast to the last attacks by the terrorists on military bases (cf. BN of 10.09. And 03.09.18), the attack was repulsed. According to the army chief of staff, Buratai, 50 terrorists were killed in a five-hour battle. " (BAMF, September 17, 2018; p. 6)

11 people were killed and over 20 others injured in an attack by gunmen on a cinema in Zamfara state. (BBC, September 13, 2018)

“On September 7th, 2018 fighters from the organization Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA), which had split off from the terrorist organization Boko Haram, attacked the city of Gudumbali (headquarters of the administration of the Guzamala Local Government Area) in the state of Borno. They occupied and looted the military base there. They withdrew from Gudumbali on September 8th, 2018. A local militia said eight civilians were killed in the attack. The army denied that there had been any deaths. In June 2018, the government declared the Guzamala region to be safe and asked around 2,000 people who had fled the area to return from the refugee camp to their hometowns 6. Returnees said they had been told that if they refused, they would no longer receive government support. Boko Haram: travelers kidnapped from bus On September 4th, 2018 fighters of the Islamist terrorist organization Boko Haram stopped a bus in the state of Borno, which was en route from Maiduguri to the town of Gwoza near the Cameroonian border. They kidnapped between ten and twenty travelers from him. A soldier is said to have been killed in the incident. " (BAMF, September 10, 2018; pp. 5-6)

“On August 30, 2018, according to unofficial military information, fighters from the Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) organization, which had split off from the terrorist organization Boko Haram, overran a military base near the Republic of Niger in the village of Zari (Borno state, Mobbar Local Government Area). At least two officers and 46 soldiers are said to have been killed by the terrorists and the military base was looted. According to military spokesman Chukwu on September 2nd, 2018, no soldiers were killed in the attack. " (BAMF, September 3, 2018; p. 5)

Suspected militant Islamists stormed the village of Mailari in Borno state. There are different data on the number of victims, ranging from 6 to 19 dead. The Islamists also looted the village. (BBC, August 20, 2018)

“On the evening of 08.08.18, according to unofficial military information, heavily armed fighters from the Islamist terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked the military base that was still being built in the village of Garunda (Borno state, Guzamala Local Government Area). 17 soldiers are said to have been killed and 14 injured in the attack. An employee of the disaster control agency NEMA was also killed. The terrorists captured vehicles and weapons. This is the third attack by the Boko Haram on military bases since July 14, 2018. " (BAMF, August 13, 2018; p. 5)

At least 371 people have been killed in the state of Zamfara so far in 2018. According to Amnesty International, there are killings and kidnappings by armed robbers on a daily basis. (AI, July 31, 2018)

In the first half of 2018, the northwestern states of Nigeria were affected by uncertainty due to cattle theft. There has also been an increase in the scale and number of attacks by the Boko Haram during the same period. Although Nigerian forces with international support reportedly ousted the Boko Haram from several areas in the northwest, the group continued to carry out deadly attacks and pose a significant threat. As of the beginning of 2018, the Boko Haram is believed to have been alone for 90 attacks with at least 260 dead responsible in Nigeria. (UN Security Council, June 29, 2018, pp. 4-5)

At least 31 people were killed in two suicide attacks in the city of Damboa, Borno state. Rockets were also fired from outside the city. The Boko Haram is suspected of being responsible for the attacks. (BBC, June 17, 2018)

In the state of Zamfara, more than 20 people have been killed by cattle thieves, according to official figures. The thieves came to Zanoka village on motorcycles, shot people and set fire to houses. In recent months there have been increasing clashes between members of vigilante groups and cattle thieves in Zamfara. (BBC, June 3, 2018)

Over a dozen people were killed in clashes between suspected Boko Haram fighters and soldiers near Maiduguri. (BBC, April 2, 2018)

“On March 1st, 2018, after nightfall, over 100 fighters from the Islamist terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked a military base in the city of Rann (on the border with Cameroon, Kalabalge Local Government Area, Borno state). They killed four soldiers and four police officers as well as three humanitarian workers (two from IOM, one from UNICEF). A nurse was kidnapped. There is a camp for around 55,000 internally displaced persons in Rann. "(BAMF, March 5, 2018)

“On the night of February 19, 2018, fighters from the Islamist terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked the secondary state girls' school for science and technology in Dapchi (Bursari Local Government Area, Yobe state). The majority of the more than 900 schoolgirls were able to flee into the bush from the attackers. 110 schoolgirls were believed to have been kidnapped because they have not yet reappeared. President Buhari called the kidnappings a national catastrophe. In April 2014, Boko Haram kidnapped 276 schoolgirls in an attack on the school in Chibok (Borno state), 112 of whom are still held hostage. " (BAMF, February 26, 2018)

Two American and two Canadian citizens were kidnapped in Kaduna state. Kidnappings, affecting both Nigerians and foreigners, increased. (BBC, January 17, 2018)

According to the Nigerian news agency NAN, three suicide bombers blew themselves up at the same time on a market in the outskirts of the city of Konduga (about 30 kilometers from Borno's capital Maiduguri) on February 16, 2018 at around 9 p.m. At least 22, according to other sources, 28 people were killed. The number of injuries is given as 18 to 50. The attacks are attributed to the Boko Haram. "(BAMF, February 19, 2018)

According to the Nigerian military, it carried out a "cleanup" in the Sambisa forest. Parents of the girls kidnapped in Chibok in 2014 fear that their daughters may be suffering from the effects of bombing. (Thomson Reuters, February 1, 2018)

“On January 17th, 2018, two suicide bombers blew themselves up on a market in the outer area of ​​Borno's capital Maiduguri in the Muna Garage district in the late afternoon. According to the Nigerian emergency agency SEMA, twelve people were killed and 48 injured. "(BAMF, January 22, 2018)

“On January 3rd, 2018, a suicide bomber blew himself up in a mosque in the city of Gamboru (on the border with Cameroon) during morning prayers. The assassin and eleven people were killed. On December 30, 2017, Boko Haram fighters from motorbikes killed at least 25 people who were collecting firewood about 20 km from Maiduguri. On the evening of December 25, 2017, fighters of the Boko Haram attacked a military post in the village of Molai (about 5 km from Borno's capital Maiduguri) on trucks converted for combat use. The attack was repulsed by the military. One person died in the litter fire; three people burned to death in a house set on fire by the terrorists. On December 16, 2017, Boko Haram attacked a food aid convoy of the World Food Program (WFP) escorted by the military on the road between Dikwa and Gamboru. According to the WFP, four civilians were killed, the military denies that. " (BAMF, January 8, 2018)

Boko Haram continued to control a small portion of Nigerian territory in 2017 and was particularly active in Borno state and some parts of the Yobe and Adamawa states. The group used suicide bombers in markets, universities and displaced persons camps, ambushed convoys and looted towns. At least 300 civilians were killed in attacks by the group in 2017. (HRW, January 18, 2018)

BBC reports that over 900 people were killed by Boko Haram in 2017. (BBC, January 25, 2018)

“The Boko Haram armed group carried out at least 65 attacks in 2017, killing a total of 411 civilians. She also kidnapped at least 73 people. In June, on the Maiduguri-Damboa road, Boko Haram ambushed an army escorted convoy and kidnapped 16 women, including ten policewomen. In a Boko Haram raid on a group of oil prospectors in a village in Magumeri, three workers were kidnapped and at least 40 other people were killed, including soldiers and members of the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF). On May 6, 2017, Boko Haram fighters released 82 schoolgirls who had been kidnapped in Chibok in 2014 after negotiations about a prisoner exchange. 113 girls were still in captivity. In November 2017, six farmers from the village of Dimge in Mafa were kidnapped and beheaded. " (AI, February 22, 2018)

In 2016, the Boko Haram continued its violent campaign against the secular authorities and anyone whom the Boko Haram believes disagree with the political and religious goals of the group. The Boko Haram continued to carry out complex attacks and suicide attacks against civilian and military targets in the north-east of the country in 2016, despite being evicted from most of the areas it controlled in early 2015. In 2016, according to statistics from an NGO based on media reports, around 2,900 people were killed as a result of the conflict between the Boko Haram and the government. The Boko Haram continued to attack population centers in the states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe in 2016. It also carried out attacks in Gombe. Many boko haram attacks have been carried out by women and children. (USDOS, March 3, 2017, Section 1g)


(States: Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Cross River State, Delta, Edo, Enugu, Imo, Ondo, Rivers)

5.1. General information

The Niger Delta in the south of Nigeria is rich in resources but affected by insecurity (ICG, September 29, 2015, p. 1). The conflict in the Niger Delta is marked by vandalism at oil facilities, massive thefts related to oil production, protests over environmental pollution, kidnappings for ransom, insecurity and violence between communities. The demands of the various militant groups varied, but often include greater autonomy for the region and a greater share of the revenues from the oil business (CRS, July 18, 2012, p. 13). The uprising led by the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) had brought the Nigerian oil industry and income from exports to a standstill. In June 2009 the uprising was ended by an amnesty for the insurgents. A certain stability could be restored (ICG, September 29, 2015, p. 1). As a result of the amnesty, the level of violence decreased, but it rose again in 2014 (USDOS, June 25, 2015, Executive Summary). The presidency of President Jonathan from 2010 to 2015, cash benefits and training for the former insurgents and agreements with leaders of the insurrection kept the conflicts under control. (ICG, September 29, 2015, p. 1).

In 2016, however, new militant groups making various demands took up arms again. While the names of the groups have changed, there is no doubt that this is "old wine in new bottles". The new militant groups continue to insist on resource control and carry out attacks on oil facilities. (African Center for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes, September 12, 2017) [xviii]

Since the government held talks with ethnic and political leaders in the region in November 2016, there have been no major attacks on oil facilities by militant groups in the Niger Delta. Nevertheless, the situation in the region remains fragile. Attacks on Igbos or other southeners in the north could lead some militant groups in the Niger Delta to attack oil facilities again, either to pressure the government to end anti-Igbo violence or to cover up criminal activity. (ICG, July 20, 2017)

5.2. Current situation

“On August 17th, 2018, women of the banned pro-Biafra organization IPOB (Indigenous People of Biafra) protested in the city of Owerri (capital of the southeastern state of Imo) for the release of their leader Nnamdi Kanu, who was suspected of being under the control of the Nigerian authorities, and for a Referendum on the independence of the Biafra area. The police broke up the demonstration using tear gas. On August 20, 2018, 112 out of 114 women arrested at the demonstration were brought before a magistrate's court in Owerri. They were charged with belonging to the banned organization IPOB, which according to the Terrorism Act can be punished with a prison sentence of up to 20 years. They also made the conspiracy to commit crimes punishable. Due to the fact that the court did not have jurisdiction over some of the offenses, the hearing was postponed to 03.09.18 for consultation with the General Prosecutor of Imo. " (BAMF, August 27, 2018, p. 5)

Pirates hold 12 members of a Swiss cargo ship hostage. The pirates struck 45 nautical miles from Bonny Island in the Niger Delta. (BBC, September 23, 2018)

In the first half of 2018 clashes between shepherds and farmers in the states of Edo, Ebonyi and Kogi resulted in numerous deaths, displacement and the destruction of property. (UN Security Council, June 29, 2018, p. 4)

“According to police reports, eleven suspected IPOB members were arrested on February 27, 2018 in the center of Enugu (capital of the southeastern state of the same name). They had previously interrupted an event of the Eastern Consultative Assembly in the Universal Hotel because the IPOB leader Nnamdi Kanu had not been considered in the honor of deserving Igbo leaders. The Pro-Biafra Organization (IPOB) has been banned as a terrorist organization in Nigeria since September 2017. " (BAMF, March 5, 2018)

At least 16 people were killed in an incident in Rivers state believed to be related to tension between rival gangs. (BBC, January 2, 2018)

Between July and December 2017, the level of armed violence remained low in the Delta region due to the renewed amnesty program, new stationing of troops in six states of the Niger Delta and peace initiatives by local, regional and national leaders. (UN Security Council, December 26, 2017, p. 4)

In 2016, civilians continued to be kidnapped in the Niger Delta by criminal groups, and ransom was often demanded. In June 2016, for example, up to seven employees of a cement company in the state of Cross River were kidnapped. The kidnappers released the men unharmed several days later. (USDOS, March 3, 2017, Section 1b)


A database of the Nigeriawatch [xix] project can be found under the following link, which can be searched for incidents of violence by state:

  • Nigeriawatch: The Database; List of events, without a date

http://www.nigeriawatch.org/index.php?urlaction=evtListe&cherche=1

Further overview maps of incidents of violence in Nigeria can also be found under the following links:

  • CFR - Council on Foreign Relations [xx]: Nigeria Security Tracker; Mapping Violence in Nigeria, undated

http://www.cfr.org/nigeria/nigeria-security-tracker/p29483

  • P4P - Partners for Peace [xxi]: Peace Map, undated

http://www.p4p-nigerdelta.org/peace-map/


(Access to all links on October 30, 2018)

  • ACAPS - Assessment Capacities Project, published by ReliefWeb: Displacement in Plateau state, July 10, 2018 https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/20180710_acaps_start_nigeria_plateau_displacement_0.pdf
  • ACCORD - Austrian Center for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation: Nigeria, 2nd quarter 2017: Brief overview of incidents from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), September 14, 2017 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/5734_1506340046_2017q2nigeria-de.pdf
  • African Center for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes: Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the Niger Delta region, September 12, 2017 (available on ReliefWeb)
    http://reliefweb.int/report/nigeria/towards-ending-conflict-and-insecurity-niger-delta-region
  • AI - Amnesty International: 'Our job is to shoot, slaughter and kill': Boko Haram's reign of terror in north east Nigeria [AFR 44/1360/2015], 13.April 2015 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/4543_1436264276_afr4413602015english.pdf
  • AI - Amnesty International: Nigeria: Analysis of the air force raid in Adamawa state [AFR 44/7795/2018], January 30, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1423076/1226_1517314262_afr4477952018english.pdf
  • AI - Amnesty International: Amnesty International Report 2017/18 - The State of the World's Human Rights - Nigeria, February 22, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/1425079.html
  • AI - Amnesty International: Nigeria: Thousands living in fear as Zamfara armed bandits ramp up attacks, July 31, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/de/dokument/1439713.html
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from January 8, 2018, January 8, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1423374/5734_1517489965_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-08-01-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from January 15, 2018, January 15, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1423384/5734_1517490483_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-15-01-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from January 22, 2018, January 22, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1423386/5734_1517492446_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-22-01-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from February 19, 2018, February 19, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1425735/5734_1519900568_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-19-02-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from February 26, 2018, February 26, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1425771/5734_1519909535_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-26-02-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from March 5, 2018, March 5, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1426088/5734_1520417204_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-05-03-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from August 13, 2018, August 13, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1442567/1226_1536220409_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-13-08-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from August 27, 2018, August 27, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1442638/1226_1536223371_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-27-08-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from September 3, 2018, September 3, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1445516/1226_1538999269_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-03-09-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from September 10, 2018, September 10, 2018 https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1445510/1226_1539001241_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und -flugitives-briefing-notes-10-09-2018-german.pdf
  • BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (Germany): Briefing Notes from September 17, 2018, September 17, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1445520/1226_1539001493_deutschland-bundesamt-fuer-migration-und-fluechtlinge-briefing-notes-17-09-2018-deutsch.pdf
  • BBC: Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamists? May 4, 2015
    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13809501
  • BBC News: Nigerian city of Maiduguri 'attacked by five child bombers', October 2, 2015
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-34423311#sa-ns_mchannel=rss&ns_source=PublicRSS20-sa
  • BBC News: Nigeria grazing ban to stop deadly cattle wars, November 2, 2017
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-41844655
  • BBC News: Nigeria gunmen kidnap two US and two Canadian citizens, January 17, 2018
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-42722951
  • BBC News: Nigeria's Boko Haram attacks in numbers - as lethal as ever, January 25, 2018
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-42735414
  • BBC News: Boko Haram attack: More than a dozen dead in Maiduguri, April 2, 2018
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-43617482
  • BBC News: Nigeria: Dozens killed by cattle thieves in Zamfara state, June 3, 2018
    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-44347951
  • BBC News: Nigeria attacks: Blasts and rockets 'kill 31' in Borno state, June 17, 2018
    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-44512912
  • BBC News: Nigeria unrest: Deadly attack on village in Borno state, August 20, 2018 https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-45243523
  • BBC News: Nigeria gunmen kill cinema-goers in Zamfara, September 13, 2018
    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-45508783
  • BBC News: Nigerian pirates kidnap 12 crew from Swiss cargo ship, September 23, 2018
    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-45618679
  • BBC News: Boko Haram faction kills second aid worker in Nigeria, October 16, 2018
    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-45871361
  • CFR - Council on Foreign Relations: Nigeria Security Tracker; Mapping Violence in Nigeria, undated
    http://www.cfr.org/nigeria/nigeria-security-tracker/p29483
  • CRS - Congressional Research Service: Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, July 18, 2012
    http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/196033.pdf
  • CRS - Congressional Research Service: Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy, November 15, 2013
    http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272109/m1/1/high_res_d/RL33964_2013Nov15.pdf
  • Die Zeit: Boko Haram: The essentials about the Nigerian terror group, last updated: November 18, 2015
    http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/boko-haram-ueberblick
  • FfP - Fund for Peace: Voices of Peace from Nigeria, April 21, 2014
    http://library.fundforpeace.org/blog-20140421-nigeriapeace
  • FFP - Fund for Peace: Niger Delta Conflict Tracker: Q2, 2017, August 24, 2017
    http://library.fundforpeace.org/library/501011708-nigeriaconflicttracker.pdf
  • GIZ - German Society for International Cooperation: Nigeria, undated
    http://www.giz.de/de/weltweit/1902.html
  • GIZ - German Society for International Cooperation: Nigeria, History and the State, December 2015
    http://liportal.giz.de/nigeria/geschichte-staat/
  • HRW - Human Rights Watch: World Report 2018 - Nigeria, January 18, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/1422531.html
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Curbing Violence in Nigeria (I): The Jos Crisis, December 17, 2012 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1355999247_196-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-i-the-jos-crisis.pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Curbing Violence in Nigeria (II): The Boko Haram Insurgency, April 3, 2014 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1396951718_216-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-ii-the-boko-haram-insurgency.pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Curbing Violence in Nigeria (III): Revisiting the Niger Delta, September 29, 2015 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1443530552_231-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-iii-re-visiting-the-niger-delta.pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Nigeria: Growing Insecurity on Multiple Fronts, July 20, 2017 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/344366/487917_de.html
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Herders against Farmers: Nigeria's Expanding Deadly Conflict, September 19, 2017 (available on ecoi.net) http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1505986246_252-nigerias-spreading-herder-farmer-conflict. pdf
  • ICG - International Crisis Group: Stopping Nigeria’s Spiralling Farmer-Herder Violence, July 26, 2018 (available on ecoi.net)
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1440058/1226_1533553576_262-stopping-nigerias-spiralling-farmer-herder-violence.pdf
  • Jamestown Foundation: Boko Haram’s Ultra-Extremist Side Resurfaces: From the Execution of Mamman Nur to Humanitarian Workers; Terrorism Monitor Volume: 16 Issue: 20, October 19, 2018 (available on ecoi.net)
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/document/1447337.html
  • Nigeriawatch: The Database; List of events, without a date
    http://www.nigeriawatch.org/index.php?urlaction=evtListe&cherche=1
  • P4P - Partners for Peace: Peace Map, undated
    http://www.p4p-nigerdelta.org/peace-map/
  • Thomson Reuters: Alarm for Chibok girls as Nigeria targets Boko Haram hideout, February 1, 2018
    http://news.trust.org/item/20180201183854-zg9cp/
  • Thomson Reuters: Nigerian army to deploy troops in areas marked by land clashes, February 7, 2018
    http://news.trust.org/item/20180207153811-gylkj
  • Thomson Reuters: Clashes, machete attack kill more than 20 in central Nigeria, March 7, 2018
    http://news.trust.org/item/20180307215315-4a0zb/
  • UNHCR - UN High Commissioner for Refugees: International Protection Considerations with regard to people fleeing northeastern Nigeria (the states of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa) and surrounding region - Update II, October 2016 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/90_1476687829_57ebb35c4.pdf
  • UN Security Council: Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel [S / 2017/563], June 30, 2017 (available at ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1499936818_n1718087.pdf
  • UN Security Council: Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel [S / 2017/1104], December 26, 2017
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1420649/1226_1514984752_n1742696.pdf
  • UN Security Council: Report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel [S / 2018/649], June 29, 2018
    https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1438086/1226_1531382798_n1817627.pdf
  • USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 - Nigeria, June 25, 2015 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/306263/429642_en.html
  • USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2016 - Nigeria, March 3, 2017 (available on ecoi.net)
    http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/337224/479988_de.html

[i] The German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) is a state development cooperation organization of the Federal Republic of Germany.

[ii] The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is the research service of the United States Congress.

[iii] The Fund for Peace (FfP) is an independent, not-for-profit research and education organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., whose work aims to help prevent violent conflict and promote sustainable security.

[iv] The US Department of State (USDOS) is the US Department of State.

[v] The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British broadcaster.

[vi] The International Crisis Group (ICG) is an independent, not-for-profit, non-governmental organization that aims to prevent and resolve violent conflicts through information and analysis.

[vii] Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency.

[viii] The UN Security Council is a United Nations body responsible for maintaining peace and security.

[ix] The Assessment Capacities Project (ACAPS) is a not-for-profit, non-governmental project based in Geneva that provides humanitarian analysis.

[x] Thomson Reuters is an international news agency based in London.

[xi] The BAMF is the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees

[xii] Amnesty International (AI) is an international human rights organization.

[xiii] Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international human rights organization.

[xiv] Die Zeit is a German weekly newspaper

[xv] The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) is a Sydney-based think tank that works to better understand the social and economic factors that lead to a more peaceful society.

[xvi] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

[xvii] The Jamestown Foundation is an independent, impartial, not-for-profit organization that provides information about terrorism.

[xviii] The African Center for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes is a South African civil society organization active in conflict prevention across Africa.

[xix] Nigeriawatch is a project run by the University of Ibadan with the support of the French Institute for Research in Africa (IFRA-Nigeria)

[xx] The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is a private American think tank with a focus on global foreign policy issues.

[xxi] Partners for Peace (P4P) is a program of the Fund for Peace (FfP), which works for a peaceful Niger Delta

This topic dossier is based on a time-limited research exclusively on ecoi.net. It is intended as an introduction to or overview of a topic and does not represent an opinion on the content of an application for asylum or other international protection. All translations are working translations for which no guarantee can be given. Chronologies do not claim to be complete. Each statement is referenced with a link to the corresponding document.

Please note: In ecoi.net’s English interface, the featured topics are presented in the form of direct quotations from documents available on ecoi.net. This may lead to non-English language content being quoted. German language translations / summaries of these quotations are available when you switch to ecoi.net’s German language interface.

1. Background information
2. Overview of conflict-related incidents
3. Central Nigeria and Abuja
3.1. Background information
3.2. Current situation
4. Northern Nigeria and Boko Haram
4.1. Background information
4.2. Current situation
5. Southern Nigeria, Biafra and the Niger Delta
5.1. Background information
5.2. Current situation
6. Further Information on the security situation in Nigeria
7. Sources

Please note: In ecoi.net’s English interface, the featured topics are presented in the form of direct quotations from documents. This may lead to non-English language content being quoted. German language translations / summaries of these quotations are available when you switch to ecoi.net’s German language interface.

“Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa and with 175 million people the most populous country on the continent. With a young, motivated and growing population, extensive natural resources, and an increasing diversification of the economy, Nigeria is not only a regional power, but a shaping power that is growing in importance on the African continent and in the world. However, the country is facing major challenges: the considerable income from oil production has so far had little effect on poverty reduction. More than two thirds of the population still live in extreme poverty and there is high unemployment. The promotion of sustainable economic and social development is made more difficult by corruption as well as the regional, ethnic, religious and social differences and the associated conflicts, some of which lead to attacks and riots. " (GIZ, undated) [i]

“Nigeria is divided into 36 states with 774 'Local Government Areas (LGAs)' as municipal administrative units and the federal territory of Abuja - 'Federal Capital Territory (FCT)'. Each of the 36 federal states has a government headed by a state governor and a state house of assembly. "(GIZ, December 2015)

“Nigeria is a federal republic composed of 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). In 2010 then Vice President Goodluck Jonathan, of the governing Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), assumed the presidency following the death of President Yar’Adua. In 2011 President Jonathan was elected as president to a four-year term, along with Vice President Mohammed Namadi Sambo, also of the PDP. " (USDOS, June 25, 2015, Executive Summary) [ii]

“Muhammadu Buhari became president in May [2015]” (BBC, October 2, 2015) [iii]

“From the outside, conflict dynamics can be bewildering in their complexity, particularly in a country as vast as Nigeria with telescoping fault-lines and polarities. After gaining independence from the United Kingdom in October 1960, the country fell into a civil war that killed over a million people before it finally ended in 1970. Military rule gave way to the Fourth Republic with the election of Olusegun Obasanjo in 1999. Since then conflict in Nigeria has included an insurgency in the Niger Delta which deescalated in 2009 as a result of an amnesty program for militants, periodic outbreaks of killing in the Middle Belt, and rising levels of violence in the Northeast. In April of 2011, hundreds were killed in post-election violence across the North. Violence ranges from the criminal, to intra-communal, inter-communal, ethnic, sectarian, political, and regional. " (FfP, April 21, 2014) [iv]

"Political life has been scarred by conflict along ethnic, geographic, and religious lines, and corruption and misrule have undermined the state’s authority and legitimacy. Despite extensive oil and natural gas resources, Nigeria’s human development indicators are among the world's lowest, and a majority of the population faces extreme poverty. " (CRS, July 18, 2012, Summary) [v].

“Ethnic and religious strife have been common in Nigeria.Divisions among ethnic groups, between north and south, and between Christians and Muslims often stem from issues relating to access to land, jobs, and socioeconomic development, and are sometimes fueled by politicians. [...] An increasingly active violent Islamist group, Boko Haram, has contributed to deteriorating security conditions in the north and seeks to capitalize on local frustrations and discredit the government. [...] In the southern Niger Delta region, local grievances related to oil production in the area have fueled simmering conflict and criminality for over a decade. The government’s efforts to negotiate with local militants, including through an amnesty program, have quieted the restive region, but the peace is fragile and violent criminality continues. " (CRS, July 18, 2012, p. 1)


The following map contains information on conflict-related incidents (number of reported incidents with at least one fatality) according to the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) at the University of Sussex (covering April to June 2018):

For further information on ACLED and the recorded incidents please see:


(States: Adamawa, Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger, Plateau, Taraba)

3.1. Background information

“Although Nigeria is chiefly known for its oil and gas production, agriculture employs about 70 per cent of its labor force. Small-holders in the country’s center and south harvest most of the country’s tuber and vegetable crops while pastoralists in the north raise most of its grains and livestock. [...] Historically, relations between herders and sedentary farming communities have been harmonious. By and large, they lived in a peaceful, symbiotic relationship: herders ’cattle would fertilize the farmers’ land in exchange for grazing rights. But tensions have grown over the past decade, with increasingly violent flare-ups spreading throughout central and southern states; incidents have occurred in at least 22 of the country’s 36 states. " (ICG, 19 September 2017, p.1) [vi]

“Plateau state falls on the dividing line between Nigeria's mainly Christian south and mostly Muslim north and has witnessed sporadic ethnic and religious tensions for decades. The largely agrarian Christian communities in the state maintain the Muslim Fulani herdsmen are engaged in a prolonged battle to gobble up land from the areas of so-called indigenous people. Fulani leaders counter their people face discrimination as "foreigners" in Plateau and are deprived of basic rights, including access to land, education and political office, despite having lived in the area for generations. Tensions frequently boil over, with more than 10,000 people killed in the state since the turn of the century, according to groups tracking the violence. " (AFP, September 17, 2015) [vii]

“Sectarian violence continues to be a particular problem in and around the central Nigerian city of Jos, the capital of Plateau State, which sits between the predominately Muslim north and Christian south. Tensions among communities in this culturally diverse “Middle Belt” are both religious and ethnic, and they stem from competition over resources - land, education, government jobs - between ethnic groups classified as settlers or as 'indigenes' (original inhabitants of the state) , with the latter designation conveying certain political and economic benefits. In Jos, the mostly Christian Berom are considered indigenes, and the predominately Muslim Hausa-Fulani, who were traditionally nomadic and pastoralist, are viewed as the settlers. ” (CRS, November 15, 2013, p. 12)

“Violent conflict between largely Muslim Fulani herders and ethnically diverse farmers in predominantly Christian areas has taken on tribal, religious and regional dimensions. Clashes across the central belt and spreading southward, are killing some 2,500 people a year. The conflict is now so deadly that many Nigerians fear it could become as dangerous as the Boko Haram insurgency. Escalating internally, the conflict could also spread regionally: herders might seek to draw fighters from their kin in other West and Central African countries, as some Fulani leaders have warned. This in turn could undermine a fragile region already struggling to defeat the Boko Haram insurgents. " (ICG, July 20, 2017)

3.2. Current situation

"Violence between Nigerian herders and farmers has escalated, killing more than 1,300 people since January 2018. The conflict has evolved from spontaneous reactions to provocations and now to deadlier planned attacks, particularly in Benue, Plateau, Adamawa, Nasarawa and Taraba states." (ICG, July 26, 2018, Principal Findings)

“On June 23, a large and coordinated attack led by a Fulani herdsman militia against farmers belonging to the Berom ethnic group resulted in approximately 200 fatalities in Barkin Ladi LGA Plateau state. The following day the government deployed troops in the area (300 soldiers, and seven helicopter gunships), as well as in the neighboring states of Benue and Taraba which have also experienced herdsmen-farmer clashes since the beginning of the 2018. Clashes continued in Plateau state the following days, affecting Barkin Ladi LGA and neighboring Mangu, Riyom, Jos North and Jos South LGAs. " (ACAPS, 10 July 2018, p.2) [viii]

"In Nigeria, multiple clashes between farmers and herders in the Middle Belt states, as well as in the southern states of Edo, Ebonyi and Kogi, resulted in numerous casualties, population displacement and destruction of property." (UN Security Council, 29 June 2018, p. 4) [ix]

“More than 20 people have died in clashes between herders and farmers in central Nigeria, police said, part of an outbreak of violence that has piled pressure on President Muhammadu Buhari less than a year before elections. Two herders went missing in the central state of Benue on Monday and one was later found dead, a state police spokesman said. In revenge, a group armed with machetes attacked people, including women and children, in the district of Okpokwu the same day, the spokesman said. Twenty-four people died in that violence, he added. " (Thomson Reuters, March 7, 2018) [x]

"The Nigerian army on Wenednesday said it will deploy troops to improve security in central states where a spate of communal violence has prompted criticism of President Muhammadu Buhari. Clashes between semi-nomadic herdsmen and farmers over fertile land have killed dozens of people in the last few weeks. A mass burial was held for 73 people killed in the violence was held in January. "(Thomson Reuters, 7 February 2018)

“Since December 31, 2017, around a hundred people have been killed in the framework of the farmer-shepherd conflict in several states. Most of them, 73 farmers and villagers, died in Benue state. They had been killed by Fulani shepherds in remote villages in the Local Government Areas Guma and Logo. The dead were buried on January 11th, 2018 in a mass grave in the capital Makurdi. In response to the incidents, the military transferred special forces to the states of Benue, Taraba and Nasarawa. A new law came into force in Benue on November 1st, 2017, which forbids cattle herders to roam the state as nomads. The conflict between the semi-nomadic Fulani shepherds and the sedentary farmers is a dispute over land and grazing rights. Due to the strong population growth, the pasture routes of the shepherds have been increasingly closed. The increased desertification in northern Nigeria also caused the shepherds to look for new pastureland in more southern areas. " (BAMF, January 15, 2018) [xi]

“On 4 December 2017, the Nigeria Air Force deployed an Alpha Jet and EC 135 attack helicopter to respond to an attack on villages in Demsa and Numan LGA by armed herdsmen. The air raids occurred as hundreds of herdsmen attacked eight villages in Adamawa state to avenge the massacre of up to 51 members of their community, mostly children, the previous month in the nearby village Kikan. On 29 November, amid fears of a reprisal attacks by herds-men, police announced they would deploy 315 extra officers in the area. […] Across the five villages visited by Amnesty International, some 3,000 homes were destroyed. As the herdsmen shot people and torched homes, and the air raid resulted in fire, it was not possible to establish how much of the death and destruction was a direct result of the air attacks or attributable to the attack by herdsmen. Locals in each village provided Amnesty International with lists of the dead, which totaled 86 names. ” (AI, January 30, 2018)

“Violence between nomadic and farming communities spread beyond the north-central region to southern parts of the country in 2017. Hundreds of people were killed, and thousands displaced. In July, two days of clashes between herdsmen and farmers killed over 30 people in Kajuru village, 31 miles outside the city of Kaduna, Kaduna state. A similar attack in Jos, Plateau State left 19 dead and five injured in September. The governor of Kaduna state called for the intervention of the regional bloc, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), to end the perennial violence between the two groups. " (HRW, January 18, 2018)

“In 2017, there were violent clashes between ethnic groups in twelve states, resulting in more than 450 deaths and the displacement of thousands of people. In many cases, conflicts between nomadic cattle herders and sedentary farmers played a role. In February 2017, 21 villagers were killed in a raid attributed to herdsmen in three communities in Atakad district, Kaura, Kaduna state. Witnesses reported that the shepherds killed the villagers and ransacked and set fire to their homes. In June 2017, clashes between ethnic groups on the Mambilla Plateau in the state of Taraba resulted in the deaths of numerous people, the majority of whom were cattle herders and their families. In September, at least 20 people were allegedly killed by cattle herders who entered the village of Ancha, Miango District, Jos, Plateau State, after a misunderstanding between villagers and herdsmen in the area. In October, 27 people were allegedly killed by cattle herders in a primary school in the Nkyie-Doghwro community in Bassa, Plateau state. They had taken refuge there after three days of raids. In December, herders attacked at least five villages in Demsa, Adamawa state, in revenge for a massacre that killed up to 57 people in November in neighboring Kikan, including many minors. Villagers said they tried to escape and were attacked by a fighter plane and a military helicopter in the process. At least 111 people were killed in the air strike and the herdsmen's attack. " (AI, February 22, 2018)

“Nigeria has implemented a controversial ban on cattle grazing they say will bring peace to the area, but opponents have decried as a recipe for anarchy. The ban, in the south-eastern Benue state, follows years violent and often deadly clashes between nomadic Fulani herdsman and local farmers. The herders accuse farmers of killing their cattle while the farmers say the animals are destroying their crops. The new law would require everyone to keep their livestock on ranches. Those breaking the law face the possibility of a five year jail sentence. The Fulani herdsman say it unfairly targets their nomadic way of life, but the Benue state government says its aim is to restore peace, reports the BBC's Chris Ewokor from the capital, Abuja. " (BBC, November 2, 2017)

“In addition, violent clashes between farmers and pastoralists in the Middle Belt and other regions continued to strain intercommunal relations. From January to April, clashes between farmers and pastoralists resulted in over 700 deaths. " (UN Security Council, June 30, 2017, p. 4)

“Land disputes, ethnic differences, settler-indigenous tensions, and religious affiliation contributed to clashes between Fulani herdsmen and farmers throughout the Middle Belt (the central part of the country). Determining the motives behind any single attack remained difficult. 'Silent killings,' in which individuals disappeared and later were found dead, occurred throughout the year. Reprisal attacks at night in which assailants targeted and attacked individual homes or communities occurred frequently. Conflicts over land rights continued between members of the Tiv, Kwalla, Jukun, Fulani, and Azara ethnic groups living near the convergence of Nasarawa, Benue, and Taraba States. " (USDOS, March 3, 2017, Section 6)


(States: Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe, Zamfara)

4.1. Background information

“Boko Haram grew out of a group of radical Islamist youth who worshiped at the Al-Haji Muhammadu Ndimi Mosque in Maiduguri, capital of Borno state, in the 1990s. Its leader, Mohammed Yusuf, began as a preacher and leader in the youth wing, Shababul Islam (Islamic Youth Vanguard), of Ahl-Sunnah, a Salafi group. [...] Most accounts date the beginning of Boko Haram - its formal Arabic name is Jama'tu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad) - to 2002, when it began to attract official attention. " (ICG, April 3, 2014, p. 7)

“Initially referred to as the Yusufiyya or Nigerian Taliban and later as Boko Haram, it also rejected all secular authority.” (ICG, April 3, 2014, p. 9)

“[…] The group is more popularly known as Boko Haram (often translated as 'Western education is forbidden'), a nickname given by local Hausa-speaking communities to describe the group's view that Western education and culture have been corrupting influences that are haram ('forbidden') under its conservative interpretation of Islam. "(CRS, 29 July 2014, p. 1)

“In 2014 Boko Haram killed more than 4,000 people, although the true figure is almost certainly higher. In the first three months of 2015, Boko Haram fighters killed at least 1,500 civilians. The group bombed civilian targets across Nigeria, raided towns and villages in the north-east and from July 2014 began to capture major towns. By February 2015, it controlled the majority of Borno state, as well as northern Adamawa state and eastern Yobe state. In August 2014, Abubakar Shekau, the group’s leader, proclaimed this territory to be a caliphate. Tens of thousands of civilians were subjected to Boko Haram’s brutal rule. " (AI, April 13, 2015, p. 3) [xii]

“Later, Mr Shekau formally pledged allegiance to Islamic State (IS), turning his back on al-Qaeda. IS accepted the pledge, naming the territory under Boko Haram's control as the Islamic State of West Africa Province and as being part of the global caliphate it was trying to establish. " (BBC, May 4, 2015)

“In response to Boko Haram's oath of allegiance to the 'Islamic State', Nigeria's neighbors Chad and Niger launched a military offensive on Nigerian soil on March 8th. […] The formation of the group can roughly be dated to the year 2002. It was formed in Maiduguri in northern Nigeria. Their approach was initially peaceful. Experts see the initial attractiveness of Boko Haram primarily due to the political and social conditions in northern Nigeria: society is ethnically and religiously fragmented, and poverty and unemployment are higher than in other parts of the country. The state only fulfills its tasks to a limited extent, the local governments are often corrupt. While the group acted non-violently in the first few years, it radicalized itself from around 2009 and has been actively fighting the Nigerian state ever since. […] The boss of Boko Haram has been Abubakar Shekau since 2010. He is said to have grown up in the city of Maiduguri and there came into contact with his predecessor Mohammed Yusuf while studying Islamic theology. " (Die Zeit, updated on 18 November 2015) [xiii]

“In March 2015, BH [Boko Haram] pledged allegiance to ISIS in an audiotape message. ISIS accepted the group’s pledge and the group began calling itself ISIS-West Africa. In August 2016, ISIS announced that Abu Musab al-Barnawi was to replace Abubakar Shekau as the new leader of the group. Infighting then led the group to split. Shekau maintains a group of followers and affiliates concentrated primarily in the Sambisa Forest; this faction is known as Boko Haram. The Governments of Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria routinely call both groups Boko Haram, with some differentiation on the ‘Shekau faction’ versus the ‘al-Barnawi faction.’ ”(USDOS, September 19, 2018)

“Boko Haram overtakes ISIL to become the most deadly terrorist group in the world. Deaths attributed to Boko Haram increased by 317 per cent in 2014 to 6,644. "(IEP, November 2015, p. 4) [xiv].

“Counterinsurgency efforts are reported to have become more effective following the inauguration in May 2015 of Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari. By cutting off supply routes and targeting insurgent safe havens, the insurgents were driven from most of the territories they had previously occupied. Following their territorial losses, the insurgents reportedly changed their tactics towards asymmetric warfare, including the use of kidnapping, rape, forced recruitment of children and youth, suicide bombing, and sexual slavery. However, according to analysts a comprehensive military victory is unlikely, and the insurgents continue to pose a considerable security threat. "(UNHCR, October 2016, p. 1f) [xv]

4.2. Current situation

"According to unofficial military information heavily armed fighters of the Islamist terror organization Boko Haram attacked the military base in Garunda village (Borno state, Guzamala Local Government Area) that is still under construction. The statement says that 17 soldiers were killed and 14 injured, an agent of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) was killed as well. The terrorists took away vehicles and weapons. This is the third Boko Haram attack on a military base since July 14, 2018. "(BAMF, August 13, 2018, p. 5)

“Fighters of the Boko Haram terror organization attacked a military base of the 145th battalion in the city of Damasak in Borno state (administrative seat of the Mobbar Local Government Area) on September 12, 2018. Other than the recent terrorist attacks on military bases (see BN of 10 September 2018 and 03 September 2018) the attack was repelled. The Army Chief of Staff, Buratai, announced that 50 terrorists were killed during a five-hour fire-fight. " (BAMF, September 17, 2018, p. 6)

“According to unofficial military sources suspected fighters of the Boko Haram splinter group Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) overran a military base near the border to the republic of Niger in the village of Zari (Borno State, Mobbar Local Government Area) on 30 August 2018. Reportedly the terrorists killed at least two officers and 46 soldiers and looted the entire military base. Military spokesman Chukwu had said on 02 September 2018 that no soldiers were killed in this attack. " (BAMF, 3 September 2018, p. 4)

"Fighters of the Boko Haram splinter group Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) attacked the city of Gudumbali in Borno state (administrative seat of the Guzamala Local Government Area) on 07 September 2018. They occupied and looted the local military base and abandoned Gudumbali again on 08 September 2018. Local militias reported that eight civilians lost their lives in the attack which the army denied. In June 2018 the government had declared the Guzamala region as safe and called upon the about 2,000 refugees from the area to return home from the refugee camps. Returns reported being told that their state support would be cut, if they refused to return. Boko Haram: Travelers kidnapped from bus On 04 September 2018 fighters of the terror organization Boko Haram stopped a bus traveling from Maiduguri to the city of Gwoza close to the border of Cameroon in Borno state. They abducted between ten and twenty of the passengers and allegedly one soldier was killed in the incident. "(BAMF, 10 September 2018, p. 6)

“An aid worker with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has been killed in Nigeria by Islamist militants who kidnapped her last March. Hauwa Liman, a midwife, was killed days after kidnappers set a deadline. The ICRC said it was devastated by the news. The Nigerian government called the murder ‘inhuman and ungodly’. Ms Liman was taken with two others in the northern Nigerian town of Rann. Fellow midwife Saifura Ahmed Khorsa was killed last month. A 15-year-old schoolgirl, Leah Sharibu, is being held by the same militant group, Islamic State West Africa Province (Iswap), which is affiliated to the Islamic State group and is a faction of the Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram. " (BBC, October 16, 2018)

“In September, reports emerged that one of Boko Haram’s longstanding leaders, Mamman Nur, was assassinated. His killers were not from the Nigerian military, which had long pursued him. The Nigerian government first declared Nur wanted after he allegedly masterminded the suicide bombing at the UN building in Abuja in August 2011, killing 23 people (Vanguard, September 19, 2011). Rather, Nur’s killers were from his own group — the Islamic State-loyal faction of Boko Haram, which is called Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP). It was not an ordinary assassination; it was fratricide. " (