What is lye water
Alkalis are solutions of compounds that are able to take up protons. The most common are the aqueous solutions of the alkali metal hydroxides NaOH and KOH. In addition, ammonia can act as a Brönsted base and therefore also forms a weak alkali. The hydroxides of the alkaline earth metals are only soluble in small amounts and therefore only form weak alkalis (e.g. "lime water").
Alkali metal + water → alkali + hydrogen
or alkaline earth metal
Metal oxide + water → hydroxide
The solution of metal hydroxide in water is an alkali.
All bases color colorless phenolphthalein solution red and litmus blue. Alkalis have a pH value> 7 to 14.
dissolve fats → therefore use as a cleaning agent
attack horn-like substances (e.g. sheep's wool, natural silk, horny layer of the skin)
taste soapy when heavily diluted
have a corrosive effect and are very dangerous in higher concentrations
do not attack vegetable fibers (cotton, linen, wood)
attack metals (except zinc and aluminum) Not at
in soap manufacturing
in paper production
in the production of pretzels
as a cleaning agent
as a paint remover
Alkalis consist of metal ions and one or more OH groups. The OH group is the characteristic component of the alkalis.
Note: Salmiakgeist (formally NH4OH):
The NH4 -Group behaves like a monovalent metal.
most important representatives
|aqueous solution||formula||hard material||Everyday name|
|Caustic soda||NaOH||Sodium hydroxide||caustic soda|
|Potassium hydroxide||KOH||Potassium hydroxide||Caustic potash|
|Lithium lye||Lithium hydroxide|
|Calcium hydroxide||Ca (OH) 2||Calcium hydroxide||Lime water|
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